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Capítulo 11
Comparação Molecular de Gases, Líquidos, e Sólidos
Particles in a solid are tightly packed together (fixed shape) and often arranged in a regular pattern; in a liquid, they are close together with no…
Forças Intermoleculares vs Intramoleculares
Intermolecular forces (IMF) are electrostatic attractions arising from charge-charge interactions between molecules. The strength of the…
Forças Intermoleculares
Atoms and molecules interact through bonds (or forces): intramolecular and intermolecular. The forces are electrostatic as they arise from…
Comparação de Forças Intermoleculares: Ponto de Fusão, Ponto de Ebulição, e Miscibilidade
Intermolecular forces are attractive forces that exist between molecules. They dictate several bulk properties, such as melting points, boiling…
Tensão Superficial, Ação Capilar, e Viscosidade
Surface Tension The various IMFs between identical molecules of a substance are examples of cohesive forces. The molecules within a liquid are…
Transições de Fase
Whether solid, liquid, or gas, a substance's state depends on the order and arrangement of its particles (atoms, molecules, or ions). Particles…
Transições de Fase: Vaporização e Condensação
The physical form of a substance changes on changing its temperature. For example, raising the temperature of a liquid causes the liquid to vaporize…
Pressão de Vapor
When a liquid vaporizes in a closed container, gas molecules cannot escape. As these gas phase molecules move randomly about, they will occasionally…
Equação de Clausius-Clapeyron
The equilibrium between a liquid and its vapor depends on the temperature of the system; a rise in temperature causes a corresponding rise in the…
Transições de Fase: Fusão e Solidificação
Heating a crystalline solid increases the average energy of its atoms, molecules, or ions, and the solid gets hotter. At some point, the added energy…
Transições de Fase: Sublimação e Deposição
Some solids can transition directly into the gaseous state, bypassing the liquid state, via a process known as sublimation. At room temperature and…
Curvas de Aquecimento e Arrefecimento
When a substance—isolated from its environment—is subjected to heat changes, corresponding changes in temperature and phase of the…
Diagramas de Fase
A phase diagram combines plots of pressure versus temperature for the liquid-gas, solid-liquid, and solid-gas phase-transition equilibria of a…
Estruturas de Sólidos
Solids in which the atoms, ions, or molecules are arranged in a definite repeating pattern are known as crystalline solids. Metals and ionic…
Centralização Reticular e Número de Coordenação
The structure of a crystalline solid, whether a metal or not, is best described by considering its simplest repeating unit, which is referred to as…
Sólidos Moleculares e Iónicos
Crystalline solids are divided into four types: molecular, ionic, metallic, and covalent network based on the type of constituent units and their…
Estruturas de Cristais Iónicos
Ionic crystals consist of two or more different kinds of ions that usually have different sizes. The packing of these ions into a crystal structure…
Sólidos Metálicos
Metallic solids such as crystals of copper, aluminum, and iron are formed by metal atoms. The structure of metallic crystals is often described as a…
Teoria de Bandas
When two or more atoms come together to form a molecule, their atomic orbitals combine and molecular orbitals of distinct energies result. In a…
Sólidos de Redes Covalentes
Network covalent solids contain a three-dimensional network of covalently bonded atoms as found in the crystal structures of nonmetals like diamond,…
Cristalografia de Raios X
The size of the unit cell and the arrangement of atoms in a crystal may be determined from measurements of the diffraction of X-rays by the crystal,…
Um método para manipular Surface Tension de um metal líquido através de oxidação superficial e Redução
Controlling interfacial tension is an effective method for manipulating the shape, position, and flow of fluids at sub-millimeter length scales,…
Caracterização de glicoproteínas com a dobra de imunoglobulina por cristalografia de raios x e técnicas biofísicas
Glycoproteins on the surface of cells play critical roles in cellular function, including signalling, adhesion and transport. On leukocytes, several…
Fabricação de gotículas de alta viscosidade usando dispositivo capilar Microfluidic com inversão de fase estrutura de fluxo de co
The generation of monodisperse droplets with high viscosity has always been a challenge in droplet microfluidics. Here, we demonstrate a…

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