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Capítulo 11
Comparación Molecular de Gases, Líquidos y Sólidos
Particles in a solid are tightly packed together (fixed shape) and often arranged in a regular pattern; in a liquid, they are close together with no…
Fuerzas Intermoleculares Vs Intramoleculares
Intermolecular forces (IMF) are electrostatic attractions arising from charge-charge interactions between molecules. The strength of the…
Fuerzas Intermoleculares
Atoms and molecules interact through bonds (or forces): intramolecular and intermolecular. The forces are electrostatic as they arise from…
Comparando Fuerzas Intermoleculares: Punto de Fusión, Punto de Ebullición y Miscibilidad
Intermolecular forces are attractive forces that exist between molecules. They dictate several bulk properties, such as melting points, boiling…
Tensión Superficial, Acción Capilar y Viscocidad
Surface Tension The various IMFs between identical molecules of a substance are examples of cohesive forces. The molecules within a liquid are…
Transiciones de Fase
Whether solid, liquid, or gas, a substance's state depends on the order and arrangement of its particles (atoms, molecules, or ions). Particles…
Transiciones de Fase: Vaporización y Condensación
The physical form of a substance changes on changing its temperature. For example, raising the temperature of a liquid causes the liquid to vaporize…
Presión de Vapor
When a liquid vaporizes in a closed container, gas molecules cannot escape. As these gas phase molecules move randomly about, they will occasionally…
Ecuación de Clausius-Clapeyron
The equilibrium between a liquid and its vapor depends on the temperature of the system; a rise in temperature causes a corresponding rise in the…
Transiciones de Fase: Punto de Fusión y Punto de Congelación
Heating a crystalline solid increases the average energy of its atoms, molecules, or ions, and the solid gets hotter. At some point, the added energy…
Transiciones de Fase: Sublimación y Deposición
Some solids can transition directly into the gaseous state, bypassing the liquid state, via a process known as sublimation. At room temperature and…
Curvas de Calentamiento y Enfriamiento
When a substance—isolated from its environment—is subjected to heat changes, corresponding changes in temperature and phase of the…
Diagramas de fase
A phase diagram combines plots of pressure versus temperature for the liquid-gas, solid-liquid, and solid-gas phase-transition equilibria of a…
Estructuras de los Sólidos
Solids in which the atoms, ions, or molecules are arranged in a definite repeating pattern are known as crystalline solids. Metals and ionic…
El Centrado de Celosía y el Número de Coordinación
The structure of a crystalline solid, whether a metal or not, is best described by considering its simplest repeating unit, which is referred to as…
Sólidos Moleculares e Iónicos
Crystalline solids are divided into four types: molecular, ionic, metallic, and covalent network based on the type of constituent units and their…
Estructuras de los Cristales Iónicos
Ionic crystals consist of two or more different kinds of ions that usually have different sizes. The packing of these ions into a crystal structure…
Sólidos Metálicos
Metallic solids such as crystals of copper, aluminum, and iron are formed by metal atoms. The structure of metallic crystals is often described as a…
Teoría de Bandas
When two or more atoms come together to form a molecule, their atomic orbitals combine and molecular orbitals of distinct energies result. In a…
Sólidos de Red Covalente
Network covalent solids contain a three-dimensional network of covalently bonded atoms as found in the crystal structures of nonmetals like diamond,…
Cristalografía de Rayos-X
The size of the unit cell and the arrangement of atoms in a crystal may be determined from measurements of the diffraction of X-rays by the crystal,…
Un método para manipular tensión superficial de un metal líquido a través de la oxidación de la superficie y Reducción
Controlling interfacial tension is an effective method for manipulating the shape, position, and flow of fluids at sub-millimeter length scales,…
Caracterización de las glicoproteínas con el doblez de la inmunoglobulina por cristalografía de rayos x y técnicas biofísicas
Glycoproteins on the surface of cells play critical roles in cellular function, including signalling, adhesion and transport. On leukocytes, several…
Fabricación de gotas de alta viscosidad usando dispositivos capilares microfluídicos con estructura de flujo de co inversión de fase
The generation of monodisperse droplets with high viscosity has always been a challenge in droplet microfluidics. Here, we demonstrate a…

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