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Bölüm 11
Gazların, Sıvıların ve Katıların Moleküler Karşılaştırması
Particles in a solid are tightly packed together (fixed shape) and often arranged in a regular pattern; in a liquid, they are close together with no…
Moleküller Arası ve Molekül İçi Kuvvetler
Intermolecular forces (IMF) are electrostatic attractions arising from charge-charge interactions between molecules. The strength of the…
Moleküller Arası Kuvvetler
Atoms and molecules interact through bonds (or forces): intramolecular and intermolecular. The forces are electrostatic as they arise from…
Moleküller Arası Kuvvetlerin Karşılaştırılması: Erime Noktası, Kaynama Noktası ve Karışabilirlik
Intermolecular forces are attractive forces that exist between molecules. They dictate several bulk properties, such as melting points, boiling…
Yüzey Gerilimi, Kapiller Etkiler, ve Vizkosite
Surface Tension The various IMFs between identical molecules of a substance are examples of cohesive forces. The molecules within a liquid are…
Hal Değişimi (Faz Geçişi)
Whether solid, liquid, or gas, a substance's state depends on the order and arrangement of its particles (atoms, molecules, or ions). Particles…
Hal Değişimleri: Buharlaşma ve Katılaşma
The physical form of a substance changes on changing its temperature. For example, raising the temperature of a liquid causes the liquid to vaporize…
Gaz Basıncı
When a liquid vaporizes in a closed container, gas molecules cannot escape. As these gas phase molecules move randomly about, they will occasionally…
Clausius-Clapeyron Denklemi
The equilibrium between a liquid and its vapor depends on the temperature of the system; a rise in temperature causes a corresponding rise in the…
Hal Değişimleri: Erime ve Donma
Heating a crystalline solid increases the average energy of its atoms, molecules, or ions, and the solid gets hotter. At some point, the added energy…
Hal Değişmleri: Süblimleşme ve Kırağılaşma
Some solids can transition directly into the gaseous state, bypassing the liquid state, via a process known as sublimation. At room temperature and…
Isınma ve Soğuma Eğrileri
When a substance—isolated from its environment—is subjected to heat changes, corresponding changes in temperature and phase of the…
Hal Diyagramları
A phase diagram combines plots of pressure versus temperature for the liquid-gas, solid-liquid, and solid-gas phase-transition equilibria of a…
Katıların Yapısı
Solids in which the atoms, ions, or molecules are arranged in a definite repeating pattern are known as crystalline solids. Metals and ionic…
Kafes Merkezleme ve Koordinasyon Numarası
The structure of a crystalline solid, whether a metal or not, is best described by considering its simplest repeating unit, which is referred to as…
Moleküler ve İyonik Katılar
Crystalline solids are divided into four types: molecular, ionic, metallic, and covalent network based on the type of constituent units and their…
İyonik Kristal Yapı
Ionic crystals consist of two or more different kinds of ions that usually have different sizes. The packing of these ions into a crystal structure…
Metalik Katılar
Metallic solids such as crystals of copper, aluminum, and iron are formed by metal atoms. The structure of metallic crystals is often described as a…
Kuşak Teorisi
When two or more atoms come together to form a molecule, their atomic orbitals combine and molecular orbitals of distinct energies result. In a…
Ağ Kovalent Katıları
Network covalent solids contain a three-dimensional network of covalently bonded atoms as found in the crystal structures of nonmetals like diamond,…
X Işını Kristalografisi
The size of the unit cell and the arrangement of atoms in a crystal may be determined from measurements of the diffraction of X-rays by the crystal,…
Bir Yöntem Yüzey Oksidasyon ve İndirgeme yoluyla Sıvı Metal Yüzey Gerilim işleyin
Controlling interfacial tension is an effective method for manipulating the shape, position, and flow of fluids at sub-millimeter length scales,…
X-ışını kristalografisi ve biyofiziksel teknikleri immünglobulin katlanmış glikoproteinlerin karakterizasyonu
Glycoproteins on the surface of cells play critical roles in cellular function, including signalling, adhesion and transport. On leukocytes, several…
Faz-inversiyon ortak akış yapısıyla mikrosıvısal kapiller aygıtı kullanarak yüksek viskozite damlacıkları imalatı
The generation of monodisperse droplets with high viscosity has always been a challenge in droplet microfluidics. Here, we demonstrate a…

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