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Формирование раствора
There is no one solvent that can dissolve every type of solute. Some substances that readily dissolve in a certain solvent might be insoluble in a…
Межмолекулярные силы в растворах
The formation of a solution is an example of a spontaneous process, a process that occurs under specified conditions without energy from some…
Энтальпия раствора
There are two criteria that favor, but do not guarantee, the spontaneous formation of a solution: A decrease in the internal energy of the system…
Водные растворы и теплота гидратации
Water and other polar molecules are attracted to ions. The electrostatic attraction between an ion and a molecule with a dipole is called an…
Равновесие и насыщение раствора.
Imagine adding a small amount of sugar to a glass of water, stirring until all the sugar has dissolved, and then adding a bit more. You can repeat…
Физические свойства, влияющие на растворимость
Solutions of Gases in Liquids As for any solution, the solubility of a gas in a liquid is affected by the attractive intermolecular forces between…
Выражение концентрации раствора
A solute is a component of a solution that is typically present at a much lower concentration than the solvent. Solute concentrations are often…
Снижение давления пара
The equilibrium vapor pressure of a liquid is the pressure exerted by its gaseous phase when vaporization and condensation are occurring at equal…
Идеальные растворы
According to Raoult’s law, the partial vapor pressure of a solvent in a solution is equal or identical to the vapor pressure of the pure…
Понижение точки замерзания и повышение точки кипения
Boiling Point Elevation The boiling point of a liquid is the temperature at which its vapor pressure is equal to ambient atmospheric pressure. Since…
Осмос и осмотическое давление растворов
A number of natural and synthetic materials exhibit selective permeation, meaning that only molecules or ions of a certain size, shape, polarity,…
Электролиты: фактор Вант-Гоффа
Colligative Properties of Electrolytes The colligative properties of a solution depend only on the number, not on the identity, of solute species…
Коллоиды
Children at play often make suspensions such as mixtures of mud and water, flour and water, or a suspension of solid pigments in water known as…
Синтез и характеристика супрамолекулярных коллоидов
Control over colloidal assembly is of utmost importance for the development of functional colloidal materials with tailored structural and mechanical…
Материальное формирование рекомбинантного паука шелка через водный солнцестояния использованием тепла и давления
Many spiders produce seven types of silks. Six of the silks are fiber in form when produced by the spiders. These fibers are not water soluble. In…

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