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الفصل 13
معدّل التفاعل
The rate of reaction is the change in the amount of a reactant or product per unit time. Reaction rates are therefore determined by measuring the…
قياس معدّلات التفاعل
Polarimetry finds application in chemical kinetics to measure the concentration and reaction kinetics of optically active substances during a…
قانون التركيز والمعدّل
The rate of a reaction is affected by the concentrations of reactants. Rate laws (differential rate laws) or rate equations are mathematical…
تحديد ترتيب التفاعل
Rate laws describe the relationship between the rate of a chemical reaction and the concentration of its reactants. In a rate law, the rate constant…
قانون المعدّل المتكامل: اعتماد التركيز على الوقت
While the differential rate law relates the rate and concentrations of reactants, a second form of rate law called the integrated rate law relates…
نصف عمر التفاعل
The half-life of a reaction (t1/2) is the time required for one-half of a given amount of reactant to be consumed. In each succeeding half-life, half…
نظية الاصطدام
The Collision Theory Atoms, molecules, or ions must collide before they can react with each other. Atoms must be close together to form chemical…
مخطّطات أرهينيوس
The Arrhenius equation relates the activation energy and the rate constant, k, for chemical reactions. In the Arrhenius equation, k = Ae−Ea/RT,…
آليات التفاعل
Chemical reactions often occur in a stepwise fashion, involving two or more distinct reactions taking place in a sequence. A balanced equation…
خطوات تحديد المعدّل
Relating Reaction Mechanisms In a multistep reaction mechanism, one of the elementary steps progresses significantly slower than the others. This…
التحفيز
The presence of a catalyst affects the rate of a chemical reaction. A catalyst is a substance that can increase the reaction rate without being…
الانزيمات
Inside living organisms, enzymes act as catalysts for many biochemical reactions involved in cellular metabolism. The role of enzymes is to reduce…
تحويل الكتلة الحيوية لإنتاج المواد الهيدروكربونية السائلة الوقود عن طريق الساخن بخار تصفية سريعة الانحلال الحراري والتحفيزي المعالجة الهيدروجينية
Lignocellulosic biomass conversion to produce biofuels has received significant attention because of the quest for a replacement for fossil fuels.…
تتالي الانزيمية ردود لتوليف الكحوليات الأمينية مراوان L-يسين
Amino alcohols are versatile compounds with a wide range of applications. For instance, they have been used as chiral scaffolds in organic synthesis.…
كيمياء تدفق مستمر: رد فعل ديفينيلديازوميثاني مع حمض-نيتروبينزويك <em>ف</em>
Continuous flow technology has been identified as instrumental for its environmental and economic advantages leveraging superior mixing, heat…

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