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Reaction Rate
The rate of reaction is the change in the amount of a reactant or product per unit time. Reaction rates are therefore determined by measuring the…
Measuring Reaction Rates
Polarimetry finds application in chemical kinetics to measure the concentration and reaction kinetics of optically active substances during a…
Concentration and Rate Law
The rate of a reaction is affected by the concentrations of reactants. Rate laws (differential rate laws) or rate equations are mathematical…
Determining Order of Reaction
Rate laws describe the relationship between the rate of a chemical reaction and the concentration of its reactants. In a rate law, the rate constant…
The Integrated Rate Law: The Dependence of Concentration on Time
While the differential rate law relates the rate and concentrations of reactants, a second form of rate law called the integrated rate law relates…
Half-life of a Reaction
The half-life of a reaction (t1/2) is the time required for one-half of a given amount of reactant to be consumed. In each succeeding half-life, half…
Temperature Dependence on Reaction Rate
The Collision Theory Atoms, molecules, or ions must collide before they can react with each other. Atoms must be close together to form chemical…
Arrhenius Plots
The Arrhenius equation relates the activation energy and the rate constant, k, for chemical reactions. In the Arrhenius equation, k = Ae−Ea/RT,…
Reaction Mechanisms
Chemical reactions often occur in a stepwise fashion, involving two or more distinct reactions taking place in a sequence. A balanced equation…
Rate-Determining Steps
Relating Reaction Mechanisms In a multistep reaction mechanism, one of the elementary steps progresses significantly slower than the others. This…
Catalysis
The presence of a catalyst affects the rate of a chemical reaction. A catalyst is a substance that can increase the reaction rate without being…
Enzymes
Inside living organisms, enzymes act as catalysts for many biochemical reactions involved in cellular metabolism. The role of enzymes is to reduce…
Biomass Conversion to Produce Hydrocarbon Liquid Fuel Via Hot-vapor Filtered Fast Pyrolysis and Catalytic Hydrotreating
Lignocellulosic biomass conversion to produce biofuels has received significant attention because of the quest for a replacement for fossil fuels.…
Enzymatic Cascade Reactions for the Synthesis of Chiral Amino Alcohols from L-lysine
Amino alcohols are versatile compounds with a wide range of applications. For instance, they have been used as chiral scaffolds in organic synthesis.…
Continuous Flow Chemistry: Reaction of Diphenyldiazomethane with <em>p</em>-Nitrobenzoic Acid
Continuous flow technology has been identified as instrumental for its environmental and economic advantages leveraging superior mixing, heat…

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