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Глава 14
Динамическое равновесие
A reversible chemical reaction represents a chemical process that proceeds in both forward (left to right) and reverse (right to left) directions.…
Константа равновесия
Consider the oxidation of sulfur dioxide: For a reaction that begins with a mixture of reactants only, the product concentration is initially equal…
Равновесия для газовых и гетерогенных реакций.
Homogeneous Equilibria for Gaseous Reactions For gas-phase reactions, the equilibrium constant may be expressed in terms of either the molar…
Расчет константы равновесия
The equilibrium constant for a reaction is calculated from the equilibrium concentrations (or pressures) of its reactants and products. If these…
Коэффициент реакции
The status of a reversible reaction is conveniently assessed by evaluating its reaction quotient (Q). For a reversible reaction described by m A + n…
Расчет равновесных концентраций
Being able to calculate equilibrium concentrations is essential to many areas of science and technology—for example, in the formulation and…
Предположение малого x
If a reaction has a small equilibrium constant, the equilibrium position favors the reactants. In such reactions, a negligible change in…
Принцип Ле Шателье: изменение концентрации
A system at equilibrium is in a state of dynamic balance, with forward and reverse reactions taking place at equal rates. If an equilibrium system is…
Принцип Ле Шателье: изменение объема (давления)
For gas-phase equilibria, changes in the concentrations of reactants and products can occur with altered volume and pressure. The partial pressure,…
Принцип ЛеШателье: изменение температуры
Consistent with the law of mass action, an equilibrium stressed by a change in concentration will shift to re-establish equilibrium without any…
Вычисление атмосферных концентраций молекулярных кластеров из <em>термохимии ab initio</em>
The computational study of the formation and growth of atmospheric aerosols requires an accurate Gibbs free energy surface, which can be obtained…
Электрохимически и Bioelectrochemically Индуцированные аммония Recovery
Streams such as urine and manure can contain high levels of ammonium, which could be recovered for reuse in agriculture or chemistry. The extraction…

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