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الفصل 15
أحماض وقواعد برونستيد-لوري
The acid-base reaction class has been studied for quite some time. In 1680, Robert Boyle reported traits of acid solutions that included their…
قوى الحمض/القاعدة وثوابت التفكّك
The relative strength of an acid or base is the extent to which it ionizes when dissolved in water. If the ionization reaction is essentially…
الماء: حمض وقاعدة برونستيد-لوري
The reaction between a Brønsted-Lowry acid and water is called acid ionization. For example, when hydrogen fluoride dissolves in water and…
مقياس درجة الحموضة
Hydronium and hydroxide ions are present both in pure water and in all aqueous solutions, and their concentrations are inversely proportional as…
القوى النسبية لأزواج حمض-قاعدة المترافقة
Brønsted-Lowry acid-base chemistry is the transfer of protons; thus, logic suggests a relation between the relative strengths of conjugate…
حمض قوي ومحاليل أساسية
A strong acid is a compound that dissociates completely in an aqueous solution and produces a concentration of hydronium ions equal to the initial…
المحاليل الحامضية الضعيفة
Few compounds act as strong acids. A far greater number of compounds behave as weak acids and only partially react with water, leaving a large…
المحاليل القاعدية الضعيفة
Some compounds produce hydroxide ions when dissolved by chemically reacting with water molecules. In all cases, these compounds react only partially…
مخاليط الأحماض
The pH of a solution containing an acid can be determined using its acid dissociation constant and its initial concentration. If a solution contains…
الأيونات كأحماض وقواعد
Salts with Acidic Ions Salts are ionic compounds composed of cations and anions, either of which may be capable of undergoing an acid or base…
تحديد الرقم الهيدروجيني (pH) لمحاليل الملح
The pH of a salt solution is determined by its component anions and cations. Salts that contain pH-neutral anions and the hydronium ion-producing…
أحماض بوليبروتيك
Acids are classified by the number of protons per molecule that they can give up in a reaction. Acids such as HCl, HNO3, and HCN that contain one…
قوة الحمض والبنية الجزيئية
Binary Acids and Bases In the absence of any leveling effect, the acid strength of binary compounds of hydrogen with nonmetals (A) increases as the…
أحماض وقواعد لويس
In 1923, G. N. Lewis proposed a generalized definition of acid-base behavior in which acids and bases are identified by their ability to accept or to…
توصيف لويس أزواج باستخدام المعايرة إلى جانب التحليل الطيفي الأشعة تحت الحمراء في الموقع
Lewis acid-activation of carbonyl-containing substrates is a fundamental basis for facilitating transformations in organic chemistry. Historically,…
الترسيب التوازن من البروتين غشاء صغير قليل وحدات تشكيل: تأثير الحامض الأميني إضافة بروتون على Pentameric الاستقرار
Analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) can be used to study reversible interactions between macromolecules over a wide range of interaction strengths…
ضبط حموضة محفزات Pt/CNTs للإثير ثنائي الفينيل
We herein present a method for the synthesis of HNbWO6, HNbMoO6, HTaWO6 solid acid nanosheet modified Pt/CNTs. By varying the weight of various solid…

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