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الفصل 17
التلقائيّة
A spontaneous process is one that occurs naturally under certain conditions. A nonspontaneous process, on the other hand, will not take place unless…
الإنتروبيا
Salt particles that have dissolved in water never spontaneously come back together in solution to reform solid particles. Moreover, a gas that has…
القانون الثاني للديناميكا الحرارية
In the quest to identify a property that may reliably predict the spontaneity of a process, a promising candidate has been identified: entropy.…
القانون الثالث للديناميكا الحرارية
A pure, perfectly crystalline solid possessing no kinetic energy (that is, at a temperature of absolute zero, 0 K) may be described by a single…
تغيير الإنتروبيا القياسي للتفاعل
Entropy is a state function, so the standard entropy change for a chemical reaction (ΔS°rxn) can be calculated from the difference in…
طاقة جيبس الحرّة
One of the challenges of using the second law of thermodynamics to determine if a process is spontaneous is that it requires measurements of the…
تأثيرات درجة الحرارة على الطاقة الحرة
The spontaneity of a process depends upon the temperature of the system. Phase transitions, for example, will proceed spontaneously in one direction…
حسابات تغيرات الطاقة الحرة القياسية
The free energy change for a reaction that occurs under the standard conditions of 1 bar pressure and at 298 K is called the standard free energy…
تغيرات الطاقة الحرة للحالات الغير قياسية
The free energy change for a process taking place with reactants and products present under nonstandard conditions (pressures other than 1 bar;…
الطاقة الحرة والتوازن
The free energy change for a process may be viewed as a measure of its driving force. A negative value for ΔG represents a driving force for the…
الديناميكا الحرارية من البروتين للطي غشاء المقاسة بواسطة التحليل الطيفي الإسفار
Membrane protein folding is an emerging topic with both fundamental and health-related significance. The abundance of membrane proteins in cells…
كشف تسريع التدهور الحتمي أسعار المستحثة بواسطة المذيبات حيوية في غشاء الانزيمات
Enzyme catalysis evolved in an aqueous environment. The influence of solvent dynamics on catalysis is, however, currently poorly understood and…
تشكيل الهياكل الجزيئية البيولوجية أمرت قبل التجميع الذاتي من الببتيدات قصير
In nature, complex functional structures are formed by the self-assembly of biomolecules under mild conditions. Understanding the forces that control…

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