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自发性
A spontaneous process is one that occurs naturally under certain conditions. A nonspontaneous process, on the other hand, will not take place unless…
熵
Salt particles that have dissolved in water never spontaneously come back together in solution to reform solid particles. Moreover, a gas that has…
热力学第二定律
In the quest to identify a property that may reliably predict the spontaneity of a process, a promising candidate has been identified: entropy.…
热力学第三定律
A pure, perfectly crystalline solid possessing no kinetic energy (that is, at a temperature of absolute zero, 0 K) may be described by a single…
反应的标准熵值变化
Entropy is a state function, so the standard entropy change for a chemical reaction (ΔS°rxn) can be calculated from the difference in…
吉布斯自由能
One of the challenges of using the second law of thermodynamics to determine if a process is spontaneous is that it requires measurements of the…
温度对自由能的影响
The spontaneity of a process depends upon the temperature of the system. Phase transitions, for example, will proceed spontaneously in one direction…
计算标准自由能变化
The free energy change for a reaction that occurs under the standard conditions of 1 bar pressure and at 298 K is called the standard free energy…
非标准状态的自由能变化
The free energy change for a process taking place with reactants and products present under nonstandard conditions (pressures other than 1 bar;…
自由能与平衡
The free energy change for a process may be viewed as a measure of its driving force. A negative value for ΔG represents a driving force for the…
荧光光谱法测定膜蛋白质折叠的热力学
Membrane protein folding is an emerging topic with both fundamental and health-related significance. The abundance of membrane proteins in cells…
揭开熵率的加速溶剂动力学的膜酶诱导
Enzyme catalysis evolved in an aqueous environment. The influence of solvent dynamics on catalysis is, however, currently poorly understood and…
生物分子有序结构由短肽的自组装形成
In nature, complex functional structures are formed by the self-assembly of biomolecules under mild conditions. Understanding the forces that control…

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