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Глава 17
Спонтанность
A spontaneous process is one that occurs naturally under certain conditions. A nonspontaneous process, on the other hand, will not take place unless…
Энтропия
Salt particles that have dissolved in water never spontaneously come back together in solution to reform solid particles. Moreover, a gas that has…
Второй закон термодинамики
In the quest to identify a property that may reliably predict the spontaneity of a process, a promising candidate has been identified: entropy.…
Третий закон термодинамики
A pure, perfectly crystalline solid possessing no kinetic energy (that is, at a temperature of absolute zero, 0 K) may be described by a single…
Стандартное изменение энтропии для реакции
Entropy is a state function, so the standard entropy change for a chemical reaction (ΔS°rxn) can be calculated from the difference in…
Свободная энергия Гиббса
One of the challenges of using the second law of thermodynamics to determine if a process is spontaneous is that it requires measurements of the…
Влияние температуры на свободную энергию
The spontaneity of a process depends upon the temperature of the system. Phase transitions, for example, will proceed spontaneously in one direction…
Расчет стандартных изменений свободной энергии
The free energy change for a reaction that occurs under the standard conditions of 1 bar pressure and at 298 K is called the standard free energy…
Изменения свободной энергии для нестандартных состояний
The free energy change for a process taking place with reactants and products present under nonstandard conditions (pressures other than 1 bar;…
Свободная энергия и равновесие
The free energy change for a process may be viewed as a measure of its driving force. A negative value for ΔG represents a driving force for the…
Термодинамика Мембранные белки Складные Измеряется флуоресцентной спектроскопии
Membrane protein folding is an emerging topic with both fundamental and health-related significance. The abundance of membrane proteins in cells…
Раскрытие Энтропическое Оценить ускорение, растворителем Dynamics в мембранных ферментов
Enzyme catalysis evolved in an aqueous environment. The influence of solvent dynamics on catalysis is, however, currently poorly understood and…
Формирование упорядоченных биомолекулярных структур по самосборки коротких пептидов
In nature, complex functional structures are formed by the self-assembly of biomolecules under mild conditions. Understanding the forces that control…

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