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الفصل 5

الحمض النووى الريبوزى منقوص الاكسجين و تركيب الكروموسوم

تغليف الحمض النووي DNA
Eukaryotes have large genomes compared to prokaryotes. In order to fit their genomes into a cell, eukaryotes must pack their DNA tightly inside the…
الحمض النووى الريبوزى كقالب وراثي
Two structural features of the DNA molecule provide a basis for the mechanisms of heredity: the four nucleotide bases and its double-stranded nature.…
تنظيم الجينات
The genomes of eukaryotes can be structured in several functional categories. A strand of DNA is comprised of genes and intergenic regions. Genes…
تركيب الكروموسوم
A functional eukaryotic chromosome must contain three elements: a centromere, telomeres, and numerous origins of replication. The centromere is a DNA…
تضاعف  الكروموسوم
Before a cell can divide, it must accurately replicate all of its chromosomes, including the DNA and its associated histone and non-histone…
الجسيم النووى
DNA in a human cell is almost 2m long and it is packed inside a tiny nucleus that is only a few microns in diameter. The level of compaction of DNA…
لب الجسيم النووى
Nucleosomes are the DNA-histone complex, where the DNA strand is wound around the histone core. The histone core is an octamer containing two copies…
اعادة تشكيل الجسيم النووى
Nucleosomes are the basic units of chromatin compaction. Each nucleosome consists of the DNA bound tightly around a histone core, which makes the DNA…
دمج الكروماتين
Each human somatic cell contains 6 billion base-pairs of DNA. Each base-pair is 0.34 nm long, which means that each diploid cell contains a…
تنميط النواة الخلوية
Describing the number and physical features of chromosomes can reveal abnormalities that underlie genetic diseases. This description is facilitated…
اختلاف اللون أثر موضع
In 1928, a German botanist Emil Heitz observed the moss nuclei with a DNA binding dye. He observed that while some chromatin regions decondense and…
تعديل الهستون
The histone proteins have a flexible N-terminal tail extending out from the nucleosome. These histone tails are often subjected to post-translational…
اتنشار تعديلات الكروماتين
The histone proteins in the nucleosomes are post-translationally modified (PTM) to increase or decrease access to DNA. The commonly observed…
كروموسوم الفرشاة
In 1882, Flemming observed lampbrush chromosomes (LBC) in salamander eggs. Later in 1892, Rückert observed LBCs in shark egg cells and coined…
كروموسوم عديد الخيوط
Polytene chromosomes are giant interphase chromosomes with several DNA strands placed side by side. They were discovered in the year 1881 by Balbiani…
اختلافات فى الهستون عند السنترومير
Histone variants are the histone proteins with structural and sequence variations. These variants may be regarded as “mutant” forms that…
وراثة تراكيب الكروماتين
Epigenetics is the study of inherited changes in a cell's phenotype without changing the DNA sequences. It provides a form of memory for the…
الاشكال المتعددة للكروماتين
The extent of chromatin compaction can be studied by staining chromatin using specific DNA binding dyes. Under the microscope, the dense-compacted…
Heterochromatin
The extent of chromatin compaction can be studied by staining chromatin using specific DNA binding dyes. Under the microscope, the dense-compacted…
موضع الكروماتين يؤثر على التعبير الجينى
Chromatin is the massive complex of DNA and proteins packaged inside the nucleus. The complexity of chromatin folding and how it is packaged inside…
جيل وتنقية الإنسان INO80 ونين إعادة عرض مجمعات وSubcomplexes
INO80 chromatin remodeling complexes regulate nucleosome dynamics and DNA accessibility by catalyzing ATP-dependent nucleosome remodeling. Human…
إيمونوبريسيبيتيشن الكروماتين (رقاقة) من "التعديلات هستون" من <em>Saccharomyces cerevisiae</em>
Histone post-translational modifications (PTMs), such as acetylation, methylation and phosphorylation, are dynamically regulated by a series of…
عزل العملاق فرجونية الكروموسومات من المعيشة البويضات من الضفادع والسلمندر
We describe methods for studying the giant transcriptionally active lampbrush chromosomes (LBCs) found in the oocyte, or unlaid egg, of frogs and…

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