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Упаковка ДНК
Eukaryotes have large genomes compared to prokaryotes. In order to fit their genomes into a cell, eukaryotes must pack their DNA tightly inside the…
ДНК как генетический шаблон
Two structural features of the DNA molecule provide a basis for the mechanisms of heredity: the four nucleotide bases and its double-stranded nature.…
Организация генов
The genomes of eukaryotes can be structured in several functional categories. A strand of DNA is comprised of genes and intergenic regions. Genes…
Хромосомная структура
A functional eukaryotic chromosome must contain three elements: a centromere, telomeres, and numerous origins of replication. The centromere is a DNA…
Репликация хромосомы
Before a cell can divide, it must accurately replicate all of its chromosomes, including the DNA and its associated histone and non-histone…
Нуклеосома
DNA in a human cell is almost 2m long and it is packed inside a tiny nucleus that is only a few microns in diameter. The level of compaction of DNA…
Частица ядра нуклеосомы
Nucleosomes are the DNA-histone complex, where the DNA strand is wound around the histone core. The histone core is an octamer containing two copies…
Ремоделирование нуклеосом
Nucleosomes are the basic units of chromatin compaction. Each nucleosome consists of the DNA bound tightly around a histone core, which makes the DNA…
Хроматиновая упаковка
Each human somatic cell contains 6 billion base-pairs of DNA. Each base-pair is 0.34 nm long, which means that each diploid cell contains a…
Кариотипирование
Describing the number and physical features of chromosomes can reveal abnormalities that underlie genetic diseases. This description is facilitated…
Влияние положения на вариегацию (пестроту) у растений
In 1928, a German botanist Emil Heitz observed the moss nuclei with a DNA binding dye. He observed that while some chromatin regions decondense and…
Модификация гистона
The histone proteins have a flexible N-terminal tail extending out from the nucleosome. These histone tails are often subjected to post-translational…
Распространение модификаций хроматина
The histone proteins in the nucleosomes are post-translationally modified (PTM) to increase or decrease access to DNA. The commonly observed…
Хромосомы ламповой щетки
In 1882, Flemming observed lampbrush chromosomes (LBC) in salamander eggs. Later in 1892, Rückert observed LBCs in shark egg cells and coined…
Политенные хромосомы
Polytene chromosomes are giant interphase chromosomes with several DNA strands placed side by side. They were discovered in the year 1881 by Balbiani…
Варианты гистонов на центромере
Histone variants are the histone proteins with structural and sequence variations. These variants may be regarded as “mutant” forms that…
Наследование структур хроматина
Epigenetics is the study of inherited changes in a cell's phenotype without changing the DNA sequences. It provides a form of memory for the…
Множественные формы хроматина
The extent of chromatin compaction can be studied by staining chromatin using specific DNA binding dyes. Under the microscope, the dense-compacted…
Heterochromatin
The extent of chromatin compaction can be studied by staining chromatin using specific DNA binding dyes. Under the microscope, the dense-compacted…
Положение хроматина влияет на экспрессию генов
Chromatin is the massive complex of DNA and proteins packaged inside the nucleus. The complexity of chromatin folding and how it is packaged inside…
Генерация и очистка человека INO80 хроматина комплексов и подкомплексов
INO80 chromatin remodeling complexes regulate nucleosome dynamics and DNA accessibility by catalyzing ATP-dependent nucleosome remodeling. Human…
Иммунопреципитации Chromatin (чип) изменения гистона от <em>Saccharomyces cerevisiae</em>
Histone post-translational modifications (PTMs), such as acetylation, methylation and phosphorylation, are dynamically regulated by a series of…
Выделение Giant хромосомы типа ламповых щёток из живых ооцитов Лягушки и саламандры
We describe methods for studying the giant transcriptionally active lampbrush chromosomes (LBCs) found in the oocyte, or unlaid egg, of frogs and…

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