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الفصل 6

تضاعف الحمض النووى الريبوزى منقوص الاكسجين

النسخ المتماثل في بدائيات النوى
DNA replication has three main steps: initiation, elongation, and termination. Replication in prokaryotes begins when initiator proteins bind to…
النسخ المتماثل في حقيقيات النوى
In eukaryotic cells, DNA replication is highly conserved and tightly regulated. Multiple linear chromosomes must be duplicated with high fidelity…
اقتران قاعدة الحمض النووي DNA
Erwin Chargaff’s rules on DNA equivalence paved the way for the discovery of base pairing in DNA. Chargaff’s rules state that in a…
شوكة التضاعف فى الحمض النووى الريبوزى منزوع الاكسجين
An organism’s genome needs to be duplicated in an efficient and error-free manner for its growth and survival. The replication fork is a…
التدقيق اللغوي
Synthesis of new DNA molecules starts when DNA polymerase links nucleotides together in a sequence that is complementary to the template DNA…
تخليق الخيط المتأخر
During replication, the complementary strands in double-stranded DNA are synthesized at different rates. Replication first begins on the leading…
هليكاز ا لحمض النووى الريبوزى منزوع الاكسجين و البروتينات الرابطة بالحمض النووى الريبوزى احادى الخيط
DNA unwinding helicase enzymes are a type of motor protein. Motor proteins can translocate along filaments or polymers using energy generated from…
Single-Strand DNA Binding Proteins
For successful DNA replication, the unwinding of double-stranded DNA must be accompanied by stabilization and protection of the separated single…
الجسيم النسخى
DNA replication is carried out by a large complex of proteins that act in a coordinated matter to achieve high-fidelity DNA replication. Together…
إصلاح عدم التطابق
Organisms are capable of detecting and fixing nucleotide mismatches that occur during DNA replication. This sophisticated process requires…
توبوايزوموريز الحمض النووى الريبوزى منزوع الاكسجين
Topoisomerases are enzymes that relax overwound DNA molecules during various cell processes, including DNA replication and transcription. These…
القطع النهائية و انزيم التيلوميراز
In eukaryotic DNA replication, a single-stranded DNA fragment remains at the end of a chromosome after the removal of the final primer. This section…
الميراث غير النووي
Most DNA resides in the nucleus of a cell. However, some organelles in the cell cytoplasm⁠—such as chloroplasts and…
علم وراثة ميتوكوندريا الحيوان
Among all the organelles in an animal cell, only mitochondria have their own independent genomes. Animal mitochondrial DNA is a double-stranded,…
مقارنة الجينوم الموجود فى الميتوكوندريا والكلوروبلاست و بدائيات النواة
The present-day mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes have retained some of the characteristics of their ancestral prokaryotes and also have acquired…
اخراج جينات الميتوكوندريا والكلوروبلاست
A eukaryotic cell can have up to three different types of genetic systems: nuclear, mitochondrial, and chloroplast. During evolution, organelles have…
التيلومير طول ونشاط تيلوميراز؛ A الين واليانغ من الشيخوخة الخلية
Telomeres are repeating DNA sequences at the tip ends of the chromosomes that are diverse in length and in humans can reach a length of 15,000 base…
تصحيح التجارب المطبعية ومقايسة إصلاح الحمض النووي باستخدام ملحق النوكليوتيدات واحدة واستخدام TOF تحليل الطيف الكتلي
The maintenance of the genome and its faithful replication is paramount for conserving genetic information. To assess high fidelity replication, we…

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