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Capitolo 6
Riproduzione nei procarioti
DNA replication has three main steps: initiation, elongation, and termination. Replication in prokaryotes begins when initiator proteins bind to…
Riproduzione negli eucarioti
In eukaryotic cells, DNA replication is highly conserved and tightly regulated. Multiple linear chromosomes must be duplicated with high fidelity…
Accoppiamento della base del DNA
Erwin Chargaff’s rules on DNA equivalence paved the way for the discovery of base pairing in DNA. Chargaff’s rules state that in a…
La forcella di replicazione del DNA
An organism’s genome needs to be duplicated in an efficient and error-free manner for its growth and survival. The replication fork is a…
Correzione di bozze
Synthesis of new DNA molecules starts when DNA polymerase links nucleotides together in a sequence that is complementary to the template DNA…
Sintesi ritardata del filamento
During replication, the complementary strands in double-stranded DNA are synthesized at different rates. Replication first begins on the leading…
DNA elicasi e proteine ​​leganti il ​​DNA a filamento singolo
DNA unwinding helicase enzymes are a type of motor protein. Motor proteins can translocate along filaments or polymers using energy generated from…
Single-Strand DNA Binding Proteins
For successful DNA replication, the unwinding of double-stranded DNA must be accompanied by stabilization and protection of the separated single…
Il Replisome
DNA replication is carried out by a large complex of proteins that act in a coordinated matter to achieve high-fidelity DNA replication. Together…
Mismatch Repair
Organisms are capable of detecting and fixing nucleotide mismatches that occur during DNA replication. This sophisticated process requires…
DNA topoisomerasi
Topoisomerases are enzymes that relax overwound DNA molecules during various cell processes, including DNA replication and transcription. These…
Telomeri e telomerasi
In eukaryotic DNA replication, a single-stranded DNA fragment remains at the end of a chromosome after the removal of the final primer. This section…
Eredità extranucleare
Most DNA resides in the nucleus of a cell. However, some organelles in the cell cytoplasm⁠—such as chloroplasts and…
Genetica mitocondriale animale
Among all the organelles in an animal cell, only mitochondria have their own independent genomes. Animal mitochondrial DNA is a double-stranded,…
Comparazione tra genomi mitocondriali, cloroplasti e procarioti
The present-day mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes have retained some of the characteristics of their ancestral prokaryotes and also have acquired…
Esportazione di geni mitocondriali e cloroplasti
A eukaryotic cell can have up to three different types of genetic systems: nuclear, mitochondrial, and chloroplast. During evolution, organelles have…
Lunghezza dei telomeri e telomerasi attività; Un Yin e Yang di senescenza cellulare
Telomeres are repeating DNA sequences at the tip ends of the chromosomes that are diverse in length and in humans can reach a length of 15,000 base…
Correzione di bozze e saggio di riparazione del DNA usando l'analisi di spettrometria di massa di singolo Nucleotide estensione e MALDI-TOF
The maintenance of the genome and its faithful replication is paramount for conserving genetic information. To assess high fidelity replication, we…

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