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Capítulo 6
Replication in Prokaryotes
DNA replication has three main steps: initiation, elongation, and termination. Replication in prokaryotes begins when initiator proteins bind to…
Replication in Eukaryotes
In eukaryotic cells, DNA replication is highly conserved and tightly regulated. Multiple linear chromosomes must be duplicated with high fidelity…
DNA Base Pairing
Erwin Chargaff’s rules on DNA equivalence paved the way for the discovery of base pairing in DNA. Chargaff’s rules state that in a…
The DNA Replication Fork
An organism’s genome needs to be duplicated in an efficient and error-free manner for its growth and survival. The replication fork is a…
Proofreading
Synthesis of new DNA molecules starts when DNA polymerase links nucleotides together in a sequence that is complementary to the template DNA…
Lagging Strand Synthesis
During replication, the complementary strands in double-stranded DNA are synthesized at different rates. Replication first begins on the leading…
DNA Helicases and Single-strand DNA-binding Proteins
DNA unwinding enzyme helicases are a type of motor protein. Motor proteins can translocate along filaments or polymers using energy generated from…
The Replisome
DNA replication is carried out by a large complex of proteins that act in a coordinated matter to achieve high-fidelity DNA replication. Together…
Mismatch Repair
Organisms are capable of detecting and fixing nucleotide mismatches that occur during DNA replication. This sophisticated process requires…
DNA Topoisomerases
Topoisomerases are enzymes that relax overwound DNA molecules during various cell processes, including DNA replication and transcription. These…
Telomeres and Telomerase
In eukaryotic DNA replication, a single-stranded DNA fragment remains at the end of a chromosome after the removal of the final primer. This section…
Non-nuclear Inheritance
Most DNA resides in the nucleus of a cell. However, some organelles in the cell cytoplasm⁠—such as chloroplasts and…
Animal Mitochondrial Genetics
Among all the organelles in an animal cell, only mitochondria have their own independent genomes. Animal mitochondrial DNA is a double-stranded,…
Comparing Mitochondrial, Chloroplast, and Prokaryotic Genomes
The present-day mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes have retained some of the characteristics of their ancestral prokaryotes and also have acquired…
Export of Mitochondrial and Chloroplast Genes
A eukaryotic cell can have up to three different types of genetic systems: nuclear, mitochondrial, and chloroplast. During evolution, organelles have…

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