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第8章

转录:DNA(脱氧核糖核酸)到RNA(核糖核酸)

什么是基因表达?
Gene expression is the process in which DNA directs the synthesis of functional products, that is, proteins. Cells can regulate gene expression…
RNA结构
The basic structure of RNA consists of a five-carbon sugar and one of four nitrogenous bases. Although most RNA is single-stranded, it can form…
RNA稳定性
Intact DNA strands can be found in fossils, while scientists sometimes struggle to keep RNA intact under laboratory conditions. The structural…
细菌RNA(核糖核酸)聚合酶和转录
Unlike eukaryotes, bacteria use a single RNA Polymerase (RNAP) to transcribe all genes. The different subunits of bacterial RNAPhave distinct…
Bacterial Transcription
RNA polymerase (RNAP) carries out DNA-dependent RNA synthesis in both bacteria and eukaryotes. Bacteria do not have a membrane-bound nucleus. So,…
核糖核酸的种类
Three main types of RNA are involved in protein synthesis: messenger RNA (mRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA), and ribosomal RNA (rRNA). These RNAs perform…
转录
Transcription is the process of synthesizing RNA from a DNA sequence by RNA polymerase. It is the first step in producing a protein from a gene…
转录因子
Tissue-specific transcription factors contribute to diverse cellular functions in mammals. For example, the gene for beta globin, a major component…
真核RNA(核糖核酸)聚合酶
RNA Polymerase (RNAP) is conserved in all animals, with bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryotic RNAPs sharing significant sequence, structural, and…
Transcription Initiation
Initiation is the first step of transcription in eukaryotes. Prokaryotic RNA Polymerase (RNAP) can bind to the template DNA and start transcribing.…
RNA(核糖核酸)聚合酶II辅助蛋白
Proteins that regulate transcription can do so either via direct contact with RNA Polymerase or through indirect interactions facilitated by…
转录延伸因子
Transcription elongation is a dynamic process that alters depending upon the sequence heterogeneity of the DNA being transcribed. Hence, it is not…
前mRNA加工
In eukaryotic cells, transcripts made by RNA polymerase are modified and processed before exiting the nucleus. Unprocessed RNA is called precursor…
RNA拼接
The process in which eukaryotic RNA is edited prior to protein translation is called splicing. It removes regions that do not code for proteins and…
替代RNA(核糖核酸)剪接
Alternative RNA splicing is the regulated splicing of exons and introns to produce different mature mRNAs from a single pre-mRNA. Unlike in…
染色质结构调节前mRNA加工
In eukaryotic cells, nascent mRNA transcripts need to undergo many post-transcriptional modifications to reach the cell cytoplasm and translate into…
mRNA的核输出
Before mRNAs are exported to the cytoplasm, it is crucial to check each mRNA for structural and functional integrity. Eukaryotic cells use several…
核糖体RNA(核糖核酸)合成
Ribosome synthesis is a highly complex and coordinated process involving more than 200 assembly factors. The synthesis and processing of ribosomal…
转移RNA(核糖核酸)合成
One of the unique features of tRNA is the presence of modified bases. In some tRNAs, modified bases account for nearly 20% of the total bases in the…
核仁
The nucleolus is the most prominent substructure of the nucleus. When it was first discovered, it was considered to be an isolated organelle that…
其他亚核结构
The eukaryotic nucleus is a double membrane-bound organelle that contains nearly all of the cell’s genetic material in the form of chromosomes.…
使用高通量形状的RNA二级结构预测
Understanding the function of RNA involved in biological processes requires a thorough knowledge of RNA structure. Toward this end, the methodology…
用于分离共转录RNA处理事件的人工RNA聚合酶II伸长复合物
Eukaryotic mRNA synthesis is a complex biochemical process requiring transcription of a DNA template into a precursor RNA by the multi-subunit enzyme…
快速合成及其与绿色荧光蛋白为基础的记者化学激活的转录因子筛选
Synthetic biology aims to rationally design and build synthetic circuits with desired quantitative properties, as well as provide tools to…

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