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Capítulo 8
O que é a Expressão Genética?
Gene expression is the process in which DNA directs the synthesis of functional products, that is, proteins. Cells can regulate gene expression…
Estrutura do RNA
The basic structure of RNA consists of a five-carbon sugar and one of four nitrogenous bases. Although most RNA is single-stranded, it can form…
Estabilidade do RNA
Intact DNA strands can be found in fossils, while scientists sometimes struggle to keep RNA intact under laboratory conditions. The structural…
Polimerase e Transcrição de RNA Bacteriano
Unlike eukaryotes, bacteria use a single RNA Polymerase (RNAP) to transcribe all genes. The different subunits of bacterial RNAPhave distinct…
Bacterial Transcription
RNA polymerase (RNAP) carries out DNA-dependent RNA synthesis in both bacteria and eukaryotes. Bacteria do not have a membrane-bound nucleus. So,…
Tipos de RNA
Three main types of RNA are involved in protein synthesis: messenger RNA (mRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA), and ribosomal RNA (rRNA). These RNAs perform…
Transcrição
Transcription is the process of synthesizing RNA from a DNA sequence by RNA polymerase. It is the first step in producing a protein from a gene…
Fatores de Transcrição
Tissue-specific transcription factors contribute to diverse cellular functions in mammals. For example, the gene for beta globin, a major component…
Polimerases Eucarióticas de RNA
RNA Polymerase (RNAP) is conserved in all animals, with bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryotic RNAPs sharing significant sequence, structural, and…
Transcription Initiation
Initiation is the first step of transcription in eukaryotes. Prokaryotic RNA Polymerase (RNAP) can bind to the template DNA and start transcribing.…
Proteínas Acessórias de RNA Polimerase II
Proteins that regulate transcription can do so either via direct contact with RNA Polymerase or through indirect interactions facilitated by…
Fatores de Alongamento da Transcrição
Transcription elongation is a dynamic process that alters depending upon the sequence heterogeneity of the DNA being transcribed. Hence, it is not…
Processamento do pré-mRNA
In eukaryotic cells, transcripts made by RNA polymerase are modified and processed before exiting the nucleus. Unprocessed RNA is called precursor…
Splicing do RNA
The process in which eukaryotic RNA is edited prior to protein translation is called splicing. It removes regions that do not code for proteins and…
Splicing de RNA Alternativo
Alternative RNA splicing is the regulated splicing of exons and introns to produce different mature mRNAs from a single pre-mRNA. Unlike in…
Estrutura da Comatina Regula o Processamento do pré-mRNA
In eukaryotic cells, nascent mRNA transcripts need to undergo many post-transcriptional modifications to reach the cell cytoplasm and translate into…
Exportação Nuclear de mRNA
Before mRNAs are exported to the cytoplasm, it is crucial to check each mRNA for structural and functional integrity. Eukaryotic cells use several…
Síntese de RNA ribossômico
Ribosome synthesis is a highly complex and coordinated process involving more than 200 assembly factors. The synthesis and processing of ribosomal…
Transferência de Síntese de RNA
One of the unique features of tRNA is the presence of modified bases. In some tRNAs, modified bases account for nearly 20% of the total bases in the…
O Nucléolo
The nucleolus is the most prominent substructure of the nucleus. When it was first discovered, it was considered to be an isolated organelle that…
Estruturas Subnucleares Adicionais
The eukaryotic nucleus is a double membrane-bound organelle that contains nearly all of the cell’s genetic material in the form of chromosomes.…
RNA Secundária Previsão Estrutura Usando SHAPE de alta capacidade
Understanding the function of RNA involved in biological processes requires a thorough knowledge of RNA structure. Toward this end, the methodology…
Complexos artificiais do alongamento do polymerase II do RNA para dissecando eventos co-transcriptional do processamento do RNA
Eukaryotic mRNA synthesis is a complex biochemical process requiring transcription of a DNA template into a precursor RNA by the multi-subunit enzyme…
Síntese rápida e Triagem de fatores de transcrição ativada quimicamente com jornalistas baseados em GFP
Synthetic biology aims to rationally design and build synthetic circuits with desired quantitative properties, as well as provide tools to…

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