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Capitolo 9
Traduzione
Translation is the process of synthesizing proteins from the genetic information carried by messenger RNA (mRNA). Following transcription, it…
Attivazione del tRNA
Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are present in both eukaryotes and bacteria. Though eukaryotes have 20 different aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases to couple to…
Ribosomi
Ribosomes translate genetic information encoded by messenger RNA (mRNA) into proteins. Both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells have ribosomes. Cells…
Miglioramento dell'accuratezza della traduzione
Base complementarity between the three base pairs of mRNA codon and the tRNA anticodon is not a failsafe mechanism. Inaccuracies can range from a…
Avvio della traduzione
Initiating translation is complex because it involves multiple molecules. Initiator tRNA, ribosomal subunits, and eukaryotic initiation factors…
Cessazione della traduzione
The large ribosomal subunit has several important structures essential to translation. These include the peptidyl transferase center (PTC) - which is…
Decadimento dell'mRNA mediato da un nonsenso
The Upf proteins that carry out nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) are found in all eukaryotic organisms, including humans. Each protein has an individual…
Chaperone molecolari e ripiegamento delle proteine
The native conformation of a protein is formed by interactions between the side chains of its constituent amino acids. When the amino acids cannot…
Il Proteasoma
Eukaryotic cells can degrade proteins through several pathways. One of the most important amongst these is the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. It helps…
Degradazione delle proteine ​​regolata
It is vital to regulate the activity of enzymatic as well as non-enzymatic proteins inside the cell. This can be achieved either through creating a…
Proteine: dai geni alla degradazione
Within a biological system, the DNA encodes the RNA, and the nucleotide sequence in the RNA further defines the amino acid sequence in the protein.…
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