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Chapter 18
Mitosis and Cytokinesis
In eukaryotes, the cell division cycle is divided into distinct, coordinated cellular processes that include cell growth, DNA replication/chromosome…
Chromosome Duplication
The process of chromosome duplication during cell division requires genome-wide disruption and re-assembly of chromatin. The chromatin structure must…
Cohesins
Cohesin protein complexes are a molecular glue that holds two sister chromatids together. They play an important role both in mitosis and meiosis. In…
Chromosome Reorganization and Condensins
Condensins are large protein complexes that use ATP to fuel the assembly of chromosomes during mitosis. They transform the tangled, shapeless mass of…
The Mitotic Spindle
The mitotic spindle—or spindle apparatus—is a eukaryotic, cytoskeletal structure made up of long protein fibers called microtubules.…
Centrosome Duplication
The primary microtubule organizing center (MTOC) in animal cells is the centrosome. A centrosome has two cylindrical centrioles at its core. Each…
Microtubule Instability
Microtubules are hollow cylindrical filaments having a diameter of approximately 25 nm and a length that varies from 200 nm to 25 μm. GTP-bound…
Spindle Assembly
Spindle assembly occurs through three, often coexisting, pathways – the centrosome-mediated pathway, the chromatin-mediated pathway, and the…
Attachment of Sister Chromatids
As cells progress into mitosis, the nuclear envelope breaks down, and the condensed chromosomes are exposed to the array of bipolar microtubules of…
Forces Acting on Chromosomes
During mitosis, chromosome movements occur through the interplay of multiple piconewton level forces. In prometaphase, these forces help in…
Separation of Sister Chromatids
At the transition from prophase to metaphase, there is a reduction in cohesion along the chromosomal arms, resulting in the resolution of sister…
The Spindle Assembly Checkpoint
The spindle assembly checkpoint is a molecular surveillance mechanism ensuring the fidelity of chromosome segregation during anaphase. The checkpoint…
Anaphase A and B
Microtubules form through the end-to-end polymerization of tubulin heterodimers. Kinetochore microtubules originate from the spindle poles, and their…
The Contractile Ring
Contractile rings are composed of microfilaments and are responsible for separating the daughter cells during cytokinesis. Contractile ring assembly…
Determining the Plane of Cell Division
Positioning the cell division plane is a critical step during development and cell differentiation, particularly during mitosis when the plane is…
The Phragmoplast
Cell division is essential for organismal growth and development. In animal cells, the central spindle and its associated proteins form the midbody,…
Distribution of Cytoplasmic Content
Cytokinesis segregates a cell’s chromosomes and organelles into its daughter cells. Organelles divide and grow prior to cell division but…
Observing Mitotic Division and Dynamics in a Live Zebrafish Embryo
Mitosis is critical for organismal growth and differentiation. The process is highly dynamic and requires ordered events to accomplish proper…
Reconstitution of Basic Mitotic Spindles in Spherical Emulsion Droplets
Mitotic spindle assembly, positioning and orientation depend on the combined forces generated by microtubule dynamics, microtubule motor proteins and…
Live Imaging to Study Microtubule Dynamic Instability in Taxane-resistant Breast Cancers
Taxanes such as docetaxel belong to a group of microtubule-targeting agents (MTAs) that are commonly relied upon to treat cancer. However, taxane…

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