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Cells are the smallest and basic units of life, whether it is a single cell that forms the entire organism, e.g., in a bacterium or trillions of…
Hücre Boyutu
The size of cells varies widely among and within organisms. For instance, the smallest bacteria are 0.1 micrometers (μm) in diameter—about a…
Ökaryotik Bölümlendirme
One of the distinguishing features of eukaryotic cells is that they contain membrane-bound organelles, such as the nucleus and mitochondria, that…
Prokaryotik Hücreler
Prokaryotes are small unicellular organisms that include the domains—Archaea and Bacteria. Bacteria include many common organisms, such as…
Sitoplazma
The cytoplasm consists of organelles, an aqueous solution called the cytosol, and a framework of protein scaffolds called the cytoskeleton. The…
Çekirdek
The nucleus is a membrane-bound organelle that contains a eukaryotic organism’s genetic instructions in the form of chromosomal DNA. This is…
Endoplazmik Retikulum
The Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) in eukaryotic cells is a substantial network of interconnected membranes with diverse functions, from calcium storage…
Ribozomlar
Ribosomes translate genetic information encoded by messenger RNA (mRNA) into proteins. Both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells have ribosomes. Cells…
Golgi Aparatı
As they leave the Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER), properly folded and assembled proteins are selectively packaged into vesicles. These vesicles are…
Mikrotübüller
There are three types of cytoskeletal structures in eukaryotic cells—microfilaments, intermediate filaments, and microtubules. With a diameter…
Mitokondri
Mitochondria and peroxisomes are organelles that are the primary sites of oxygen usage in eukaryotic cells. Mitochondria carry out cellular…
Oluklu Bağlantı
Multicellular organisms employ a variety of ways for cells to communicate with each other. Gap junctions are specialized proteins that form pores…
Ekstrasellüler Matris
In order to maintain tissue organization, many animal cells are surrounded by structural molecules that make up the extracellular matrix (ECM).…
Dokular
Cells with similar structure and function are grouped into tissues. A group of tissues with a specialized function is called an organ. There are four…
Bitki Hücre Duvarı
The plant cell wall gives plant cells shape, support, and protection. As a cell matures, its cell wall specializes according to the cell type. For…
Plazmodezmata
The organs in a multicellular organism’s body are made up of tissues formed by cells. To work together cohesively, cells must communicate. One…
β-varil Dış Membran Proteinleri Yapı Tayini Doğru - Yapıların itibaren Crystals
Membrane proteins serve important functions in cells such as nutrient transport, motility, signaling, survival and virulence, yet constitute only ~1%…
Recombinase aracılı Kaset Değişimi Kullanarak Fare Embriyonik Kök Hücre yapı-fonksiyon Çalışmaları
Gene engineering in mouse embryos or embryonic stem cells (mESCs) allows for the study of the function of a given protein. Proteins are the…
HIV-1 pozitif Bireylerin Plazma eksozomlann izolasyonu
Exosomes are small vesicles ranging in size from 30 nm to 100 nm that are released both constitutively and upon stimulation from a variety of cell…

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