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Что такое клетки?
Cells are the smallest and basic units of life, whether it is a single cell that forms the entire organism, e.g., in a bacterium or trillions of…
Размер клетки
The size of cells varies widely among and within organisms. For instance, the smallest bacteria are 0.1 micrometers (μm) in diameter—about a…
Эукариотическая компартментализация
One of the distinguishing features of eukaryotic cells is that they contain membrane-bound organelles, such as the nucleus and mitochondria, that…
Прокариоты
Prokaryotes are small unicellular organisms that include the domains—Archaea and Bacteria. Bacteria include many common organisms, such as…
Цитоплазма
The cytoplasm consists of organelles, an aqueous solution called the cytosol, and a framework of protein scaffolds called the cytoskeleton. The…
Ядро
The nucleus is a membrane-bound organelle that contains a eukaryotic organism’s genetic instructions in the form of chromosomal DNA. This is…
Эндоплазматический ретикулум
The Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) in eukaryotic cells is a substantial network of interconnected membranes with diverse functions, from calcium storage…
Рибосомы
Ribosomes translate genetic information encoded by messenger RNA (mRNA) into proteins. Both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells have ribosomes. Cells…
Аппарат Гольджи
As they leave the Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER), properly folded and assembled proteins are selectively packaged into vesicles. These vesicles are…
Микротрубочки
There are three types of cytoskeletal structures in eukaryotic cells—microfilaments, intermediate filaments, and microtubules. With a diameter…
 Митохондрия
Mitochondria and peroxisomes are organelles that are the primary sites of oxygen usage in eukaryotic cells. Mitochondria carry out cellular…
Нексус
Multicellular organisms employ a variety of ways for cells to communicate with each other. Gap junctions are specialized proteins that form pores…
Внеклеточная матрица
In order to maintain tissue organization, many animal cells are surrounded by structural molecules that make up the extracellular matrix (ECM).…
Ткани
Cells with similar structure and function are grouped into tissues. A group of tissues with a specialized function is called an organ. There are four…
Стенка растительной клетки
The plant cell wall gives plant cells shape, support, and protection. As a cell matures, its cell wall specializes according to the cell type. For…
Плазмодесмы
The organs in a multicellular organism’s body are made up of tissues formed by cells. To work together cohesively, cells must communicate. One…
Выделение экзосомы из плазмы ВИЧ-1-инфицированных
Exosomes are small vesicles ranging in size from 30 nm to 100 nm that are released both constitutively and upon stimulation from a variety of cell…

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