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Cells are the foundational level of organization of life. An organism may be unicellular, as with prokaryotes and most eukaryotic protists, or…
Zellgrößen
The size of cells varies widely among and within organisms. For instance, the smallest bacteria are 0.1 micrometers (μm) in diameter—about a…
Die eukaryotische Kompartimentierung
One of the distinguishing features of eukaryotic cells is that they contain membrane-bound organelles—such as the nucleus and…
Prokaryotische Zellen
Prokaryotes are small unicellular organisms in the domains Archaea and Bacteria. Bacteria include many common organisms such as Salmonella and…
Zytoplasma
The cytoplasm consists of organelles, an aqueous solution called the cytosol, and a framework of protein scaffolds called the cytoskeleton. The…
Zellkern
The nucleus is a membrane-bound organelle that contains a eukaryotic organism’s genetic instructions in the form of chromosomal DNA. This is…
Endoplasmatisches Retikulum
The Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) in eukaryotic cells is a substantial network of interconnected membranes with diverse functions, from calcium storage…
Ribosomen
Ribosomes translate genetic information encoded by messenger RNA (mRNA) into proteins. Both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells have ribosomes. Cells…
Golgi-Apparat
As they leave the Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER), properly folded and assembled proteins are selectively packaged into vesicles. These vesicles are…
Mikrotubuli
There are three types of cytoskeletal structures in eukaryotic cells—microfilaments, intermediate filaments, and microtubules. With a diameter…
Mitochondrien
Mitochondria and peroxisomes are organelles that are the primary sites of oxygen usage in eukaryotic cells. Mitochondria carry out cellular…
Gap Junctions
Multicellular organisms employ a variety of ways for cells to communicate with each other. Gap junctions are specialized proteins that form pores…
Die extrazelluläre Matrix
In order to maintain tissue organization, many animal cells are surrounded by structural molecules that make up the extracellular matrix (ECM).…
Gewebe
Cells with similar structure and function are grouped into tissues. A group of tissues with a specialized function is called an organ. There are four…
Die pflanzliche Zellwand
The plant cell wall gives plant cells shape, support, and protection. As a cell matures, its cell wall specializes according to the cell type. For…
Plasmodesmen
The organs in a multicellular organism’s body are made up of tissues formed by cells. To work together cohesively, cells must communicate. One…
Von Konstrukten Crystals - Auf dem Weg zu Strukturbestimmung von β-Fass-Außenmembranproteine
Membrane proteins serve important functions in cells such as nutrient transport, motility, signaling, survival and virulence, yet constitute only ~1%…
Struktur-Funktions-Studien in embryonalen Maus-Stammzellen Rekombinase-vermittelten Kassettenaustausch
Gene engineering in mouse embryos or embryonic stem cells (mESCs) allows for the study of the function of a given protein. Proteins are the…
Isolierung der Exosomen aus dem Plasma von HIV-1-positiven Individuen
Exosomes are small vesicles ranging in size from 30 nm to 100 nm that are released both constitutively and upon stimulation from a variety of cell…

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