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第5章
什么是膜?
A key characteristic of life is the ability to separate the external environment from the internal space. To do this, cells have evolved…
膜流动性
Cell membranes are composed of phospholipids, proteins, and carbohydrates loosely attached to one another through chemical interactions. Molecules…
流体镶嵌模型
The fluid mosaic model was first proposed as a visual representation of research observations. The model comprises the composition and dynamics of…
什么是电化学梯度?
Adenosine triphosphate, or ATP, is considered the primary energy source in cells. However, energy can also be stored in the electrochemical gradient…
扩散
Diffusion is the passive movement of substances down their concentration gradients—requiring no expenditure of cellular energy. Substances,…
渗透
Approximately 60% to 95% of the weight of living organisms is attributed to water. Therefore, maintaining appropriate water balance within cells is…
动物的张力
The tonicity of a solution determines if a cell gains or loses water in that solution. The tonicity depends on the permeability of the cell membrane…
植物的张力
Tonicity describes the capacity of a cell to lose or gain water. It depends on the quantity of solute that does not penetrate the membrane. Tonicity…
蛋白质组合
The cell membrane—or plasma membrane—is an ever-changing landscape. It is described as a fluid mosaic as various macromolecules are embedded in…
促进运输
The chemical and physical properties of plasma membranes cause them to be selectively permeable. Since plasma membranes have both hydrophobic and…
初级主动运输
In contrast to passive transport, active transport involves a substance being moved through membranes in a direction against its concentration or…
二级主动运输
One example of how cells use the energy contained in electrochemical gradients is demonstrated by glucose transport into cells. The ion vital to this…
受体介导的内吞作用
Receptor-mediated endocytosis is a process through which bulk amounts of specific molecules can be imported into a cell after binding to cell…
胞饮作用
Cells use energy-requiring bulk transport mechanisms to transfer large particles, or large amounts of small particles, into or out of the cell. The…
吞噬作用
Cells pull particles inward and engulf them in spherical vesicles in an energy-requiring process called endocytosis. Phagocytosis (“cellular…
胞吐作用
Exocytosis is used to release material from cells. Like other bulk transport mechanisms, exocytosis requires energy. While endocytosis takes…
由荧光相关光谱测量的一次淋巴细胞的细胞膜分子扩散
Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) is a powerful technique for studying the diffusion of molecules within biological membranes with high…
The Cell-based L-Glutathione Protection Assays to Study Endocytosis and Recycling of Plasma Membrane Proteins
Membrane trafficking involves transport of proteins from the plasma membrane to the cell interior (i.e. endocytosis) followed by trafficking to…
使用调频染料诱发过程中,自发的,微型突触活动检查突触囊泡循环的
Synaptic vesicles in functional nerve terminals undergo exocytosis and endocytosis. This synaptic vesicle recycling can be effectively analyzed using…

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