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Kapitel 5
Was sind Membranen?
A key characteristic of life is the ability to separate the external environment from the internal space. To do this, cells have evolved…
Fließfähigkeit der Zellmembran
Cell membranes are composed of phospholipids, proteins, and carbohydrates loosely attached to one another through chemical interactions. Molecules…
Das Flüssig-Mosaik-Modell
The fluid mosaic model was first proposed as a visual representation of research observations. The model comprises the composition and dynamics of…
Was ist ein elektrochemischer Gradient?
Adenosine triphosphate, or ATP, is considered the primary energy source in cells. However, energy can also be stored in the electrochemical gradient…
Diffusion
Diffusion is the passive movement of substances down their concentration gradients—requiring no expenditure of cellular energy. Substances,…
Osmose
Approximately 60% to 95% of the weight of living organisms is attributed to water. Therefore, maintaining appropriate water balance within cells is…
Tonizität in Tieren
The tonicity of a solution determines if a cell gains or loses water in that solution. The tonicity depends on the permeability of the cell membrane…
Tonizität in Pflanzen
Tonicity describes the capacity of a cell to lose or gain water. It depends on the quantity of solute that does not penetrate the membrane. Tonicity…
Proteintypen
The cell membrane—or plasma membrane—is an ever-changing landscape. It is described as a fluid mosaic as various macromolecules are embedded in…
Erleichterter Transport
The chemical and physical properties of plasma membranes cause them to be selectively permeable. Since plasma membranes have both hydrophobic and…
Primärer aktiver Transport
In contrast to passive transport, active transport involves a substance being moved through membranes in a direction against its concentration or…
Sekundärer aktiver Transport
One example of how cells use the energy contained in electrochemical gradients is demonstrated by glucose transport into cells. The ion vital to this…
Rezeptorvermittelte Endozytose
Receptor-mediated endocytosis is a process through which bulk amounts of specific molecules can be imported into a cell after binding to cell…
Pinozytose
Cells use energy-requiring bulk transport mechanisms to transfer large particles, or large amounts of small particles, into or out of the cell. The…
Phagozytose
Cells pull particles inward and engulf them in spherical vesicles in an energy-requiring process called endocytosis. Phagocytosis (“cellular…
Exozytose
Exocytosis is used to release material from cells. Like other bulk transport mechanisms, exocytosis requires energy. While endocytosis takes…
Molekulare Diffusion in Plasmamembranen von primären Lymphozyten mittels Fluoreszenz-Korrelations-Spektroskopie gemessen
Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) is a powerful technique for studying the diffusion of molecules within biological membranes with high…
Die Cell-basierten L-Glutathion Schutz Assays zur Endozytose und Recycling von Plasmamembranproteinen Studieren
Membrane trafficking involves transport of proteins from the plasma membrane to the cell interior (i.e. endocytosis) followed by trafficking to…
Die Untersuchung der synaptischen Vesikel Recycling Verwenden des UKW-Farbstoffe Während evozierte, spontan, und Miniatur Synaptic Aktivitäten
Synaptic vesicles in functional nerve terminals undergo exocytosis and endocytosis. This synaptic vesicle recycling can be effectively analyzed using…

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