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什么是细胞信号?
Despite the protective membrane that separates a cell from the environment, cells need the ability to detect and respond to environmental changes.…
细菌信号
At times, a group of bacteria behaves like a community. To achieve this, they engage in quorum sensing, the perception of higher cell density that…
酵母信号
Yeasts are single-celled organisms, but unlike bacteria, they are eukaryotes—cells that have a nucleus. Cell signaling in yeast is similar to…
接触依赖信号
Contact-dependent signaling uses specialized cytoplasmic channels between cells that allow the flow of small molecules between them. In animal cells,…
自分泌信号
Secreted signals can act on a variety of target cells. In some cases, the cell that secretes a signal also detects and responds to the signaling…
旁分泌信号
Paracrine signaling allows cells to communicate with their immediate neighbors via secretion of signaling molecules. The signal only triggers a…
突触信号
Neurons communicate at synapses, or junctions, to excite or inhibit the activity of other neurons or target cells, such as muscles. Synapses may be…
G蛋白偶联受体
G-protein coupled receptors are ligand binding receptors that indirectly affect changes in the cell. The actual receptor is a single polypeptide that…
内部受体
Many cellular signals are hydrophilic and therefore cannot pass through the plasma membrane. However, small or hydrophobic signaling molecules can…
内分泌信号
Endocrine cells produce hormones to communicate with remote target cells found in other organs. The hormone reaches these distant areas using the…
什么是第二信使?
Because many receptor binding ligands are hydrophilic, they do not cross the cell membrane and thus their message must be relayed to a second…
细胞内信号级联
Intracellular signaling cascades amplify a signal originating extracellularly and directs it to its intended intracellular target resulting in…
离子通道
Ion channels maintain the membrane potential of a cell. For most cells, especially excitable ones, the inside has a more negative charge than the…
酶联受体
Enzyme-linked receptors are proteins which act as both receptor and enzyme, activating multiple intracellular signals. This is a large group of…
筛选生物活性纳米颗粒在噬菌体免疫细胞中的Toll样受体信号传导抑制剂
Pharmacological regulation of Toll-like receptor (TLR) responses holds great promise in the treatment of many inflammatory diseases. However, there…
T细胞实时成像实时信号复合物的形成
Protection against infectious diseases is mediated by the immune system 1,2. T lymphocytes are the master coordinators of the immune system,…
的细胞内信号与相邻小区发生细胞凋亡通过互动活细胞诱导活动标识
Cells dying by apoptosis, also referred to as regulated cell death, acquire multiple new activities that enable them to influence the function of…

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