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Что такое клеточная сигнализация?
Despite the protective membrane that separates a cell from the environment, cells need the ability to detect and respond to environmental changes.…
Бактериальные сигналы
At times, a group of bacteria behaves like a community. To achieve this, they engage in quorum sensing, the perception of higher cell density that…
Дрожжевные сигналы
Yeasts are single-celled organisms, but unlike bacteria, they are eukaryotes—cells that have a nucleus. Cell signaling in yeast is similar to…
Контактные сигналы
Contact-dependent signaling uses specialized cytoplasmic channels between cells that allow the flow of small molecules between them. In animal cells,…
Аутокринные сигналы
Secreted signals can act on a variety of target cells. In some cases, the cell that secretes a signal also detects and responds to the signaling…
Паракринные сигналы
Paracrine signaling allows cells to communicate with their immediate neighbors via secretion of signaling molecules. The signal only triggers a…
Синаптические сигналы
Neurons communicate at synapses, or junctions, to excite or inhibit the activity of other neurons or target cells, such as muscles. Synapses may be…
Рецепторы, сопряжённые с G-белком
G-protein coupled receptors are ligand binding receptors that indirectly affect changes in the cell. The actual receptor is a single polypeptide that…
Внутренние рецепторы
Many cellular signals are hydrophilic and therefore cannot pass through the plasma membrane. However, small or hydrophobic signaling molecules can…
Эндокринные сигналы
Endocrine cells produce hormones to communicate with remote target cells found in other organs. The hormone reaches these distant areas using the…
Что такое вторичные мессенджеры?
Because many receptor binding ligands are hydrophilic, they do not cross the cell membrane and thus their message must be relayed to a second…
Внутриклеточные сигнальные каскады
Intracellular signaling cascades amplify a signal originating extracellularly and directs it to its intended intracellular target resulting in…
Ионные каналы
Ion channels maintain the membrane potential of a cell. For most cells, especially excitable ones, the inside has a more negative charge than the…
Рецепторы, сопряженные с ферментами
Enzyme-linked receptors are proteins which act as both receptor and enzyme, activating multiple intracellular signals. This is a large group of…
В режиме реального времени Живая съемка Т-клеточного сигнального комплекса Формирование
Protection against infectious diseases is mediated by the immune system 1,2. T lymphocytes are the master coordinators of the immune system,…

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