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代謝とは?
Metabolism represents all of the chemical activity in a cell, including reactions that build molecules (anabolism) and those that break molecules…
熱力学の第一法則
The First Law of Thermodynamics states that energy cannot be created or destroyed, only transformed. This can be demonstrated within a classic food…
熱力学の第二法則
The Second Law of Thermodynamics states that entropy, or the amount of disorder in a system, increases each time energy is transferred or…
運動エネルギー
Kinetic energy is the ability of an object in motion to do work or enact change. It can take on many forms. For instance, water flowing down a…
位置エネルギー
Potential energy is a stored form of energy that has the potential to do work, and therefore, to be converted into kinetic energy. Gravitational…
自由エネルギー
Free energy—abbreviated as G for the scientist Gibbs who discovered it—is a measurement of useful energy that can be extracted from a…
活性化エネルギー
Activation energy is the minimum amount of energy necessary for a chemical reaction to move forward. The higher the activation energy, the slower the…
ATPの加水分解
The bonds of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) can be broken through the addition of water, releasing one or two phosphate groups in an exergonic process…
リン酸化
The addition or removal of phosphate groups from proteins is the most common chemical modification that regulates cellular processes. These…
誘導適合モデル
Most chemical reactions in cells require enzymes—biological catalysts that speed up the reaction without being used up or permanently changed.…
酵素の反応速度論
Enzymes speed up reactions by lowering the activation energy of the reactants. The speed at which the enzyme turns reactants into products is called…
酵素の阻害
Inhibitors are molecules that reduce enzyme activity by binding to the enzyme. In a normally functioning cell, enzymes are regulated by a variety of…
フィードバック阻害
Biochemical reactions are occurring constantly in cells, converting starting substances to different products, usually with the help of enzymes that…
アロステリック制御
Allosteric regulation of enzymes occurs when the binding of a molecule to a different location from the active site causes a change in enzymatic…
補因子と補酵素
Enzymes require additional components for proper function. There are two such classes of molecules: cofactors and coenzymes. Cofactors are metallic…
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