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什么是细胞呼吸?
Organisms harvest energy from food, but this energy cannot be directly used by cells. Cells convert the energy stored in nutrients into a more usable…
什么是糖酵解?
Cells make energy by breaking down macromolecules. Cellular respiration is the biochemical process that converts “food energy” (from…
糖酵解需要能量的阶段
Glucose is the source of nearly all energy used by organisms. The first step of converting glucose into usable energy is called glycolysis.…
糖酵解释放能量的阶段
While the first phase of glycolysis consumes energy to convert glucose to glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P), the second phase produces energy. The…
糖酵解的结果
Nearly all the energy used by cells comes from the bonds that make up complex, organic compounds. These organic compounds are broken down into…
丙酮酸氧化
After glycolysis, the charged pyruvate molecules enter the mitochondria via active transport and undergo three enzymatic reactions. These reactions…
柠檬酸循环
The citric acid cycle, also known as the Krebs cycle or TCA cycle, consists of several energy-generating reactions that yield one ATP molecule, three…
柠檬酸循环的产品
The cells of most organisms—including plants and animals—obtain usable energy through aerobic respiration, the oxygen-requiring version…
电子传输链
The final stage of cellular respiration is oxidative phosphorylation, which consists of (1) an electron transport chain and (2) chemiosmosis. The…
化学渗透
Oxidative phosphorylation is a highly efficient process that generates large amounts of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the basic unit of energy that…
电子载体
Electron carriers can be thought of as electron shuttles. These compounds can easily accept electrons (i.e., be reduced) or lose them (i.e., be…
ATP产量
Cellular respiration produces 30-32 ATP molecules per glucose molecule. Although most of the ATP results from oxidative phosphorylation and the…
发酵
Most eukaryotic organisms require oxygen to survive and function adequately. Such organisms produce large amounts of energy during aerobic…
饮食关系
Metabolic pathways are interconnected. The cellular respiration processes that convert glucose to ATP—such as glycolysis, pyruvate oxidation, and…
高分辨率呼​​吸测量,以评估线粒体功能的通透和完整细胞
A high-resolution oxygraph is a device for measuring cellular oxygen consumption in a closed-chamber system with very high resolution and sensitivity…
一种优化的协议分析和糖酵解线粒体呼吸的淋巴细胞
Lymphocytes respond to a variety of stimuli by activating intracellular signaling pathways, which in turn leads to rapid cellular proliferation,…
治疗SCA1小鼠水溶性化合物,以非特异性升压线粒体功能
Mitochondrial dysfunction plays a significant role in the aging process and in neurodegenerative diseases including several hereditary…
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