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Was ist die Zellatmung?
Organisms harvest energy from food, but this energy cannot be directly used by cells. Cells convert the energy stored in nutrients into a more usable…
Was ist die Glykolyse?
Cells make energy by breaking down macromolecules. Cellular respiration is the biochemical process that converts “food energy” (from…
Energiebedürftige Schritte der Glykolyse
Glucose is the source of nearly all energy used by organisms. The first step of converting glucose into usable energy is called glycolysis.…
Energiefreisetzende Schritte der Glykolyse
While the first phase of glycolysis consumes energy to convert glucose to glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P), the second phase produces energy. The…
Ergebnisse der Glykolyse
Nearly all the energy used by cells comes from the bonds that make up complex, organic compounds. These organic compounds are broken down into…
Oxidative Decarboxylierung von Pyruvat
After glycolysis, the charged pyruvate molecules enter the mitochondria via active transport and undergo three enzymatic reactions. These reactions…
Citratzyklus
The citric acid cycle, also known as the Krebs cycle or TCA cycle, consists of several energy-generating reactions that yield one ATP molecule, three…
Produkte des Citratzyklus
The cells of most organisms—including plants and animals—obtain usable energy through aerobic respiration, the oxygen-requiring version…
Elektronentransportketten
The final stage of cellular respiration is oxidative phosphorylation, which consists of (1) an electron transport chain and (2) chemiosmosis. The…
Chemiosmose
Oxidative phosphorylation is a highly efficient process that generates large amounts of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the basic unit of energy that…
Elektronenträger
Electron carriers can be thought of as electron shuttles. These compounds can easily accept electrons (i.e., be reduced) or lose them (i.e., be…
ATP-Ertrag
Cellular respiration produces 30-32 ATP molecules per glucose molecule. Although most of the ATP results from oxidative phosphorylation and the…
Fermentation
Most eukaryotic organisms require oxygen to survive and function adequately. Such organisms produce large amounts of energy during aerobic…
Diätetische Verbindungen
Metabolic pathways are interconnected. The cellular respiration processes that convert glucose to ATP—such as glycolysis, pyruvate oxidation, and…
Hochauflösende Respirationstest zur Beurteilung mitochondrialen Funktion in permeabilisierten und Intakte Zellen
A high-resolution oxygraph is a device for measuring cellular oxygen consumption in a closed-chamber system with very high resolution and sensitivity…
Ein optimiertes Protokoll Glykolyse und die mitochondriale Atmung in Lymphozyten zu analysieren
Lymphocytes respond to a variety of stimuli by activating intracellular signaling pathways, which in turn leads to rapid cellular proliferation,…
Die Behandlung von SCA1 Mäuse, die mit wasserlöslichen Verbindungen zu unspezifisch Erhöhung mitochondriale Funktion
Mitochondrial dysfunction plays a significant role in the aging process and in neurodegenerative diseases including several hereditary…
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