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الفصل 9
ما هو التمثيل الضوئي؟
Photosynthesis is a multipart, biochemical process that occurs in plants as well as in some bacteria. It captures carbon dioxide and solar energy to…
الضوء باعتباره طاقة
The energy required to carry out photosynthesis is light—typically radiation from the sun. The electromagnetic particles are called photons…
تشريح البلاستيدات الخضراء
Green algae and plants, including green stems and unripe fruit, harbor chloroplasts—the vital organelles where photosynthesis takes place. In…
النظام الضوئي II
Photosystem II is a multi-protein complex embedded within the thylakoid membrane where it harvests light energy. Chlorophyll molecules transfer…
النظام الضوئي I
Like Photosystem II (PS II), Photosystem I (PS I) captures photons and transports them through chlorophyll molecules into a reaction center. In PS…
دورة كالفين
Oxygenic photosynthesis converts approximately 200 billion tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) annually to organic compounds and produces approximately…
مسار C4 و CAM
Some plants, like sugar cane and corn, that grow in hot conditions, use an alternative process called the C4 pathway to fix carbon. The cycle…

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