Login processing...

Trial ends in Request Full Access Tell Your Colleague About Jove
Capítulo 12

Genética Clásica y Moderna

Carga Genética
An organism is diploid if it inherits two variants, or alleles, of each gene, one from each parent. These two alleles constitute the genotype for a…
Cuadrados de Punnett
A Punnett square displays the possible genotypes offspring can inherit from two parental genotypes. If a trait’s inheritance pattern (e.g.,…
Cruces monohíbridos
In the 1850s and 1860s, Gregor Mendel investigated inheritance by performing monohybrid crosses in pea plants. He crossed two plants that were…
Cruces Dihíbridos
To determine whether traits are inherited together or separately, Gregor Mendel crossed pea plants that differed in two traits. These parental…
Ley de la segregación
When crossing pea plants, Mendel noticed that one of the parental traits would sometimes disappear in the first generation of offspring, called the…
Ley de la Segregación y Clasificación Independiente
While Mendel’s Law of Segregation states that the two alleles for one gene are separated into different gametes, a different question of how…
Prueba de Cruzamiento
Alleles are different forms of the same gene. Humans and other diploid organisms inherit two alleles of every gene, one from each parent. An allele…
Análisis de pedigrí
A pedigree is a diagram displaying a family’s history of a trait. Analyzing pedigrees can reveal (1) whether a trait is dominant or…
Leyes de probabilidad
The probability of inheriting a trait can be calculated using the sum and product rules. The sum rule is used to calculate the probability of…
Rasgos de alelos múltiples
Multiple allelism describes genes that exist in three or more allelic forms. Although diploid organisms, like humans, normally possess only two…
Teoría cromosómica de la herencia
In 1866, Gregor Mendel published the results of his pea plant breeding experiments, providing evidence for predictable patterns in the inheritance of…
Herencia no nuclear
Most DNA resides in the nucleus of a cell. However, some organelles in the cell cytoplasm⁠—such as chloroplasts and…
Rasgos ligados a X
In most mammalian species, females have two X sex chromosomes and males have an X and Y. As a result, mutations on the X chromosome in females may be…
Trastornos ligados al sexo
Like autosomes, sex chromosomes contain a variety of genes necessary for normal body function. When a mutation in one of these genes results in…
Inactivación X
The human X chromosome contains over ten times the number of genes as in the Y chromosome. Since males have only one X chromosome, and females have…
Epistasis
In addition to multiple alleles at the same locus influencing traits, numerous genes or alleles at different locations may interact and influence…
Rasgos poligénicos
When more than one gene is responsible for a given phenotype, the trait is considered polygenic. Human height is a polygenic trait. Studies have…
Pleiotropía
Pleiotropy is the phenomenon in which a single gene impacts multiple, seemingly unrelated phenotypic traits. For example, defects in the SOX10 gene…
Naturaleza y educación
Many human characteristics, like height, are shaped by both nature—in other words, by our genes—and by nurture, or our environment. For…

Get cutting-edge science videos from JoVE sent straight to your inbox every month.

Waiting X
simple hit counter