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Chapitre 12

Génétique classique et moderne

Jargon génétique
An organism is diploid if it inherits two variants, or alleles, of each gene, one from each parent. These two alleles constitute the genotype for a…
Échiquier de Punnett
A Punnett square displays the possible genotypes offspring can inherit from two parental genotypes. If a trait’s inheritance pattern (e.g.,…
Croisements monohybrides
In the 1850s and 1860s, Gregor Mendel investigated inheritance by performing monohybrid crosses in pea plants. He crossed two plants that were…
Croisements dihybrides
To determine whether traits are inherited together or separately, Gregor Mendel crossed pea plants that differed in two traits. These parental…
Loi de ségrégation
When crossing pea plants, Mendel noticed that one of the parental traits would sometimes disappear in the first generation of offspring, called the…
Loi de l'indépendance de la transmission des caractères
While Mendel’s Law of Segregation states that the two alleles for one gene are separated into different gametes, a different question of how…
Croisement de contrôle
Alleles are different forms of the same gene. Humans and other diploid organisms inherit two alleles of every gene, one from each parent. An allele…
Analyse du pedigree
A pedigree is a diagram displaying a family’s history of a trait. Analyzing pedigrees can reveal (1) whether a trait is dominant or…
Lois de probabilité
The probability of inheriting a trait can be calculated using the sum and product rules. The sum rule is used to calculate the probability of…
Traits d'allèles multiples
Multiple allelism describes genes that exist in three or more allelic forms. Although diploid organisms, like humans, normally possess only two…
Théorie chromosomique de l'hérédité
In 1866, Gregor Mendel published the results of his pea plant breeding experiments, providing evidence for predictable patterns in the inheritance of…
Héritage extranucléaire
Most DNA resides in the nucleus of a cell. However, some organelles in the cell cytoplasm⁠—such as chloroplasts and…
Traits liés à l'X
In most mammalian species, females have two X sex chromosomes and males have an X and Y. As a result, mutations on the X chromosome in females may be…
Troubles liés au sexe
Like autosomes, sex chromosomes contain a variety of genes necessary for normal body function. When a mutation in one of these genes results in…
Inactivation du chromosome X
The human X chromosome contains over ten times the number of genes as in the Y chromosome. Since males have only one X chromosome, and females have…
Épistase
In addition to multiple alleles at the same locus influencing traits, numerous genes or alleles at different locations may interact and influence…
Traits polygéniques
When more than one gene is responsible for a given phenotype, the trait is considered polygenic. Human height is a polygenic trait. Studies have…
Pléiotropie
Pleiotropy is the phenomenon in which a single gene impacts multiple, seemingly unrelated phenotypic traits. For example, defects in the SOX10 gene…
Nature et culture
Many human characteristics, like height, are shaped by both nature—in other words, by our genes—and by nurture, or our environment. For…
High-Throughput Robotically Assisted Isolation of Temperature-sensitive Lethal Mutants in <em>Chlamydomonas reinhardtii</em>
Systematic identification and characterization of genetic perturbations have proven useful to decipher gene function and cellular pathways. However,…
Optogenetic Random Mutagenesis Using Histone-miniSOG in <em>C. elegans</em>
Forward genetic screening in model organisms is the workhorse to discover functionally important genes and pathways in many biological processes. In…
Mosaic Zebrafish Transgenesis for Functional Genomic Analysis of Candidate Cooperative Genes in Tumor Pathogenesis
Comprehensive genomic analysis has uncovered surprisingly large numbers of genetic alterations in various types of cancers. To robustly and…

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