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الفصل 14
ما هو التعبير الجيني؟
Gene expression is the process in which DNA directs the synthesis of functional products, that is, proteins. Cells can regulate gene expression…
الهدف الرئيسي
The central dogma of biology states that information encoded in the DNA is transferred to messenger RNA (mRNA), which then directs the synthesis of…
عوامل النسخ
Tissue-specific transcription factors contribute to diverse cellular functions in mammals. For example, the gene for beta globin, a major component…
هيكل الحمض النووي الريبي RNA
The basic structure of RNA consists of a five-carbon sugar and one of four nitrogenous bases. Although most RNA is single-stranded, it can form…
استقرار الحمض النووي الريبي RNA
Intact DNA strands can be found in fossils, while scientists sometimes struggle to keep RNA intact under laboratory conditions. The structural…
معالجة ما قبل mRNA
In eukaryotic cells, transcripts made by RNA polymerase are modified and processed before exiting the nucleus. Unprocessed RNA is called precursor…
أنواع الحمض النووي الريبي RNA
Three main types of RNA are involved in protein synthesis: messenger RNA (mRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA), and ribosomal RNA (rRNA). These RNAs perform…
RNA المكيروية
MicroRNA (miRNA) are short, regulatory RNA transcribed from introns—non-coding regions of a gene—or intergenic regions—stretches of…
توصيل (إزالة انترونات) RNA
The process in which eukaryotic RNA is edited prior to protein translation is called splicing. It removes regions that do not code for proteins and…
تنظيم الوراثة الفوقية
Epigenetic mechanisms play an essential role in healthy development. Conversely, precisely regulated epigenetic mechanisms are disrupted in diseases…
تدخل الحمض النووي الريبي RNA
RNA interference (RNAi) is a process in which a small non-coding RNA molecule blocks the expression of a gene by binding to its messenger RNA (mRNA)…
جينات المَشغلات
Prokaryotes can control gene expression through operons—DNA sequences consisting of regulatory elements and clustered, functionally related…
التحديد الكمي "المعلومات المشفرة" واسطة الجينات التعبير مستويات خلال عمر التحوير تحت نطاق واسع "الغذائية التقييد" في <em>C. ايليجانس</em>
Sensory systems allow animals to detect, process, and respond to their environment. Food abundance is an environmental cue that has profound effects…
وحيدة الخلية التعبير الجيني التنميط عن طريق نظام مراقبة الأصول الميدانية وQPCR مع المعايير الداخلية
Gene expression measurements from bulk populations of cells can obscure the considerable transcriptomic variation of individual cells within those…
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