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遺伝子発現とは何か
Gene expression is the process in which DNA directs the synthesis of functional products, that is, proteins. Cells can regulate gene expression…
セントラルドグマ
The central dogma of biology states that information encoded in the DNA is transferred to messenger RNA (mRNA), which then directs the synthesis of…
転写因子
Tissue-specific transcription factors contribute to diverse cellular functions in mammals. For example, the gene for beta globin, a major component…
RNAの構造
The basic structure of RNA consists of a five-carbon sugar and one of four nitrogenous bases. Although most RNA is single-stranded, it can form…
RNAの安定性
Intact DNA strands can be found in fossils, while scientists sometimes struggle to keep RNA intact under laboratory conditions. The structural…
mRNA前駆体のプロセシング
In eukaryotic cells, transcripts made by RNA polymerase are modified and processed before exiting the nucleus. Unprocessed RNA is called precursor…
RNAの種類
Three main types of RNA are involved in protein synthesis: messenger RNA (mRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA), and ribosomal RNA (rRNA). These RNAs perform…
マイクロRNA
MicroRNA (miRNA) are short, regulatory RNA transcribed from introns—non-coding regions of a gene—or intergenic regions—stretches of…
RNAスプライシング
The process in which eukaryotic RNA is edited prior to protein translation is called splicing. It removes regions that do not code for proteins and…
エピジェネティックな調節
Epigenetic mechanisms play an essential role in healthy development. Conversely, precisely regulated epigenetic mechanisms are disrupted in diseases…
RNA干渉
RNA interference (RNAi) is a process in which a small non-coding RNA molecule blocks the expression of a gene by binding to its messenger RNA (mRNA)…
オペロン
Prokaryotes can control gene expression through operons—DNA sequences consisting of regulatory elements and clustered, functionally related…
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