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الفصل 20
ما هو نظام الهيكل العظمي؟
The adult human skeleton comprises 206 bones that are connected through cartilage, tendons, and ligaments. The skeleton provides a rigid framework…
هيكل العظام
Within the skeletal system, the structure of a bone, or osseous tissue, can be exemplified in a long bone, like the femur, where there are two types…
المفاصل
Joints, also called articulations or articular surfaces, are points at which ligaments or other tissues connect adjacent bones. Joints permit…
إعادة تشكيل العظام
Bone remodeling is a continuous and balanced process of bone resorption by osteoclasts and bone formation by osteoblasts. In adults, it helps…
تشريح العضلات الهيكلية
Skeletal muscle is the most abundant type of muscle in the body. Tendons are the connective tissue that attaches skeletal muscle to bones. Skeletal…
تصنيف ألياف العضلات الهيكلية
Skeletal muscles continuously produce ATP to provide the energy that enables muscle contractions. Skeletal muscle fibers can be categorized as type…
تقلص العضلات
  In skeletal muscles, acetylcholine is released by nerve terminals at the motor end plate—the point of synaptic communication between…
دورة عبور الجسر
As muscle contracts, the overlap between the thin and thick filaments increases, decreasing the length of the sarcomere—the contractile unit of…
الوحدات الحركية
A motor unit consists of two main components: a single efferent motor neuron (i.e., a neuron that carries impulses away from the central nervous…
الحبل الشوكي
The spinal cord is the body’s major nerve tract of the central nervous system, communicating afferent sensory information from the periphery to…
إحساس الألم
Nociception—the ability to feel pain—is essential for an organism’s survival and overall well-being. Noxious stimuli such as…
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