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第23章

渗透调节和排泄

什么是渗透调节和排泄?
Organisms must keep bodily fluids at a constant temperature and pH while maintaining specific solute concentrations in order to support life…
肾结构
The kidneys are two large bean-shaped organs located in the upper abdomen. They filter the blood several times a day to remove toxins and rebalance…
过滤
The function of the kidneys is to filter, reabsorb, secrete, and excrete. Every day the kidneys filter nearly 180 liters of blood, initially removing…
尿素循环
The urea cycle describes how liver cells convert ammonia to urea. Ammonia is a toxic waste product of protein catabolism. Land animals must convert…
激素调节
The renin-aldosterone system is an endocrine system which guides the renal absorption of water and electrolytes, thus managing blood pressure and…
比较排泄系统
Animals have evolved different strategies for excretion, the removal of waste from the body. Most waste must be dissolved in water to be excreted, so…
鱼类的渗透调节
When cells are placed in a hypotonic (low-salt) fluid, they can swell and burst. Meanwhile, cells in a hypertonic solution—with a higher salt…
昆虫中的渗透调节
Malpighian tubules are specialized structures found in the digestive systems of many arthropods, including most insects, that handle excretion and…
生理学实验室演示:肾小球滤过率在一个老鼠
Measurements of glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and the fractional excretion of sodium (Na) and potassium (K) are critical in assessing renal…
微型固相萃取和LC-MS / MS检测人尿中3-硝基酪氨酸的临床应用
Free 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) has been extensively used as a possible biomarker for oxidative stress. Increased levels of 3-NT have been reported in a…

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