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浸透圧調節および排泄とは何か
Organisms must keep bodily fluids at a constant temperature and pH while maintaining specific solute concentrations in order to support life…
腎臓の構造
The kidneys are two large bean-shaped organs located in the upper abdomen. They filter the blood several times a day to remove toxins and rebalance…
濾過
The function of the kidneys is to filter, reabsorb, secrete, and excrete. Every day the kidneys filter nearly 180 liters of blood, initially removing…
尿素サイクル
The urea cycle describes how liver cells convert ammonia to urea. Ammonia is a toxic waste product of protein catabolism. Land animals must convert…
ホルモン調節
The renin-aldosterone system is an endocrine system which guides the renal absorption of water and electrolytes, thus managing blood pressure and…
排泄システムの比較
Animals have evolved different strategies for excretion, the removal of waste from the body. Most waste must be dissolved in water to be excreted, so…
魚類の浸透圧調節
When cells are placed in a hypotonic (low-salt) fluid, they can swell and burst. Meanwhile, cells in a hypertonic solution—with a higher salt…
昆虫類の浸透圧調節
Malpighian tubules are specialized structures found in the digestive systems of many arthropods, including most insects, that handle excretion and…

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