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الفصل 24
ما هو جهاز المناعة؟
The immune system comprises diverse biological structures and processes that protect the body from disease. These processes can be classified into…
الاستجابات المناعية الخلوية
The cell-mediated immune system is the host’s primary response against invasive bacteria and viruses that cause intracellular infections. It…
الاستجابات المناعية الخلطية
The humoral immune response, also known as the antibody-mediated immune response, targets pathogens circulating in “humors,” or…
هيكل الجسم المضاد
Antibodies, also known as immunoglobulins (Ig), are essential players of the adaptive immune system. These antigen-binding proteins are produced by…
الألفة والرَغابة
Antibodies bind to toxins or substances on the surface of cells, bacteria, viruses, or fungi. The substance is called an antigen, and the precise…
التفاعلية المتصالبة
The ability of a single antibody to recognize multiple structurally similar epitopes is an important immune defense strategy that enables the host…
ردود الفعل التحسسية
We speak of an allergy when the immune system triggers a response against a benign foreign structure, like food, pollen or pet dander. These…
الالتهاب
In response to tissue injury and infection, mast cells initiate inflammation. Mast cells release chemicals that increase the permeability of…
التطعيمات
Vaccination is the administration of antigenic material from pathogens to confer immunity against a specific microorganism. Vaccination primes the…
مثلي زرع والأجهزة الطرفية المناعي رصد خلية في نموذج II-45 مسانج الجرذ ورم الظهارة المتوسطة
The enormous upsurge of interest in immune-based treatments for cancer such as vaccines and immune checkpoint inhibitors, and increased understanding…
تحديد قمع نظام المناعة مقابل حماية الجهاز العصبي المركزي للالدوائية التدخلات في إزالة الميالين المناعة الذاتية
A major hallmark of the autoimmune demyelinating disease multiple sclerosis (MS) is immune cell infiltration into the brain and spinal cord resulting…
حقن ليبوبوليساكتشاريدي في الفئران لتقليد دخول المنتجات المستمدة من الجراثيم بعد خرق جدار الأمعاء
The intestinal epithelial barrier separates the host from the microbiota that is normally tolerated or ignored. The breach of this barrier results in…

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