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الفصل 27
ما هو النظام البيئي؟
An ecosystem is the interaction between all abiotic and biotic factors in an environment and can be classified as terrestrial or aquatic.…
المستويات الغذائية
All organisms in an ecosystem occupy a trophic level in the food chain. The lowest level consists of primary producers, which synthesize their food…
الإنتاج الأولي
The total amount of energy acquired by primary producers in an ecosystem is called gross primary production (GPP). However, of this energy, producers…
كفاءة الإنتاج
Net production efficiency (NPE) is the efficiency at which organisms assimilate energy into biomass for the next trophic level. Due to low metabolic…
الكفاءة الغذائية
Trophic level transfer efficiency (TLTE) is a measure of the total energy transfer from one trophic level to the next. Due to extensive energy loss…
ما هي الدورات الحيوية الجيولوجية الكيميائية؟
The most common elements in organic molecules, carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus, are only available in the ecosystem in…
دورة الماء
The Earth’s hydrosphere includes all of the areas where the storage and movement of water occurs. Since water is the basis of all living…
دورة الكربون
Carbon is the basis of all organic matter on Earth, and is recycled through the ecosystem in two primary processes: one in which carbon is exchanged…
دورة النيتروجين
Nitrogen atoms, present in all proteins and DNA, are recycled between abiotic and biotic components of the ecosystem. However, the primary form of…
دورة الفوسفور
Unlike carbon, water, and nitrogen, phosphorus is not present in the atmosphere as a gas. Instead, most phosphorus in the ecosystem exists as…
دورة الكبريت
Sulfur, an important element in the chemical makeup of proteins, is recycled through the atmosphere and aquatic and terrestrial environments. Found…
المعالجة الحيوية
Bioremediation is the use of prokaryotes, fungi, or plants to remove pollutants from the environment. This process has been used to remove harmful…

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