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الفصل 33
شجرة تطور السلالات
Phylogenetic trees come in many forms. It matters in which sequence the organisms are arranged from the bottom to the top of the tree, but the…
الظروف على الأرض في بداياتها المبكرة
Around 4 billion years ago, oceans began to condense on earth while volcanic eruptions released nitrogen, carbon dioxide, methane, ammonia, and…
استعمار الأرض
Changes in the environment of the early Earth drove the evolution of organisms. As prokaryotic organisms in the oceans began to photosynthesize, they…
ما هو التاريخ التطوري؟
Scientists record evolutionary history by analyzing fossil, morphological, and genetic data. The fossil record documents the history of life on Earth…
دليل التطور
Genetic variations accumulating within populations over generations give rise to biological evolution. Evolutionary changes can result in the…
سجل الحفريات
The fossil record documents only a small fraction of all organisms that have ever inhabited Earth. Fossilization is a rare process, and most…
التطوّر التقاربي
Evolution shapes the features of organisms over time, ensuring that they are suited for the environments in which they live. Sometimes, selection…
ترتيب القراءة طويلة جداً لتحليل الحمض النووي كله
Third generation single-molecule DNA sequencing technologies offer significantly longer read length that can facilitate the assembly of complex…
إجراءات التكيف مختبر تطور الكائنات الدقيقة باستخدام ناظم كيميائي
Natural evolution involves genetic diversity such as environmental change and a selection between small populations. Adaptive laboratory evolution…
ووليماونت في الموقع التهجين للأجنة <em>أستياناكس</em>
In recent years, a draft genome for the blind Mexican cavefish (Astyanax mexicanus) has been released, revealing the sequence identities for…
التلاعب بالجينات الدالة في كافيفيش المكسيكي
Cave animals provide a compelling system for investigating the evolutionary mechanisms and genetic bases underlying changes in numerous complex…

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