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Chapter 3

Social Judgment and Decision-Making

Reason and Intuition
The human brain processes information for decision-making using one of two routes: an intuitive system and a rational system (Epstein, 1994;…
Schemas
A schema is a mental construct consisting of a cluster or collection of related concepts (Bartlett, 1932). There are many different types of…
Social Scripts
People tend to know what behavior is expected of them in specific, familiar settings. A script is a person’s knowledge about the sequence of…
The Availability Heuristic
A heuristic is a general problem-solving framework (Tversky & Kahneman, 1974). You can think of these as mental shortcuts that are used to solve…
The Representativeness Heuristic
The representative heuristic describes a biased way of thinking, in which you unintentionally stereotype someone or something. For example, you may…
The Anchoring-and-Adjustment Heuristic
In order to make good decisions, we use our knowledge and our reasoning. Often, this knowledge and reasoning is sound and solid. However, sometimes,…
Confirmation Biases
The confirmation bias is the tendency to focus on information that confirms our existing beliefs and ignore information that is inconsistent with our…
Hindsight Biases
Hindsight bias leads you to believe that the event you just experienced was predictable, even though it really wasn’t. In other words, you…
Framing Effects
Information is everywhere and its presentation—such as how and when items are presented—can impact our perceptions and decisions…
Thinking Too Much Impairs Decision-Making
Source: Peter Mende-Siedlecki & Jay Van Bavel—New York University When we are considering a tough choice between two or more attractive…
Experimental Research Examining How People Can Cope with Uncertainty Through Soft Haptic Sensations
Human beings are constantly surrounded by uncertainty and change. The question arises how people cope with such uncertainty. To date, most research…
Assessment of Social Cognition in Non-human Primates Using a Network of Computerized Automated Learning Device (ALDM) Test Systems
Fagot & Paleressompoulle1 and Fagot & Bonte2 have published an automated learning device (ALDM) for the study of cognitive abilities of…

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