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第34章
植物多样性介绍
From Water to Land Kingdom Plantae first appeared about 410 million years ago as green algae transitioned from water to land. This land was a…
非维管束无核植物
The diverse plant life on Earth—consisting of nearly 400,000 species—can be divided into three broad categories based on biological…
维管束无核植物
Seedless Vascular Plants Were the First Tall Plants on Earth Today, seedless vascular plants are represented by monilophytes and lycophytes.…
种子植物概论
Most plants are seed plants—characterized by seeds, pollen, and reduced gametophytes. Seed plants include gymnosperms and…
基本植物解剖学:根、茎和叶
The primary organs of vascular plants are roots, stems, and leaves, but these structures can be highly variable, adapted for the specific needs and…
植物细胞和组织
Plant tissues are collections of similar cells performing related functions. Different plant tissues will have their own specialized roles and can be…
分生组织与植物生长
Plants grow throughout their lives; this is called indeterminate growth, and it distinguishes plants from most animals. Although certain parts of…
根和芽的一次和二次生长
Vascular plants, which account for over 90% of the Earth’s vegetation, all undergo primary growth—which lengthens roots and shoots. Many…
形态发生
Plant morphogenesis—the development of a plant’s form and structure—involves several overlapping developmental processes, including…
光采集
In order to produce glucose, plants need to capture sufficient light energy. Many modern plants have evolved leaves specialized for light…
水和矿物质采集
Specialized tissues in plant roots have evolved to capture water, minerals, and some ions from the soil. Roots exhibit a variety of branching…
物质短途运输
Short-distance transport refers to transport that occurs over a distance of just 2-3 cells, crossing the plasma membrane in the process. Small…
木质部和蒸腾作用驱动的物质运输
The xylem of vascular plants distributes water and dissolved minerals that are taken up by the roots to the rest of the plant. The cells that…
气孔对蒸腾作用的调节
During photosynthesis, plants acquire the necessary carbon dioxide and release the produced oxygen back into the atmosphere. Openings in the…
减少水分流失的适应作用
Though evaporation from plant leaves drives transpiration, it also results in loss of water. Because water is critical for photosynthetic reactions…
韧皮部与糖分运输
Like many living organisms, plants have tissues that specialize in specific plant functions. For example, shoots are well adapted to rapid growth,…
土壤生态系统
Plants obtain inorganic minerals and water from the soil, which acts as a natural medium for land plants. The composition and quality of soil depend…
植物营养要素
Like all living organisms, plants require organic and inorganic nutrients to survive, reproduce, grow and maintain homeostasis. To identify nutrients…
细菌和真菌在植物营养中的作用
Plants have the impressive ability to create their own food through photosynthesis. However, plants often require assistance from organisms in the…
附生植物、寄生虫和食肉动物
Plants often form mutualistic relationships with soil-dwelling fungi or bacteria to enhance their roots’ nutrient uptake ability.…
质外体和同质体
Plant growth depends on its ability to take up water and dissolved minerals from the soil. The root system of every plant is equipped with the…
<em>赫连图斯安努斯</em>大型热成像筛选装置新稳压器的鉴定
Plant adaptation to biotic and abiotic stresses is governed by a variety of factors, among which the regulation of stomatal aperture in response to…
使用高解析度电脑断层可视化的三维结构和功能的植物血管
High resolution x-ray computed tomography (HRCT) is a non-destructive diagnostic imaging technique with sub-micron resolution capability that is now…

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