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Chapitre 34
Introduction à la diversité végétale
From Water to Land Kingdom Plantae first appeared about 410 million years ago as green algae transitioned from water to land. This land was a…
Plantes non vasculaires sans pépins
The diverse plant life on Earth—consisting of nearly 400,000 species—can be divided into three broad categories based on biological…
Plantes vasculaires sans pépins
Seedless Vascular Plants Were the First Tall Plants on Earth Today, seedless vascular plants are represented by monilophytes and lycophytes.…
Introduction aux plantes à graines
Most plants are seed plants—characterized by seeds, pollen, and reduced gametophytes. Seed plants include gymnosperms and…
Anatomie végétale de base : Racines, tiges et feuilles
The primary organs of vascular plants are roots, stems, and leaves, but these structures can be highly variable, adapted for the specific needs and…
Cellules et tissus végétaux
Plant tissues are collections of similar cells performing related functions. Different plant tissues will have their own specialized roles and can be…
Méristèmes et croissance des plantes
Plants grow throughout their lives; this is called indeterminate growth, and it distinguishes plants from most animals. Although certain parts of…
Croissance primaire et secondaire des racines et des pousses
Vascular plants, which account for over 90% of the Earth’s vegetation, all undergo primary growth—which lengthens roots and shoots. Many…
Morphogenèse
Plant morphogenesis—the development of a plant’s form and structure—involves several overlapping developmental processes, including…
Acquisition de lumière
In order to produce glucose, plants need to capture sufficient light energy. Many modern plants have evolved leaves specialized for light…
Acquisition d'eau et de minéraux
Specialized tissues in plant roots have evolved to capture water, minerals, and some ions from the soil. Roots exhibit a variety of branching…
Transport de ressources à courte distance
Short-distance transport refers to transport that occurs over a distance of just 2-3 cells, crossing the plasma membrane in the process. Small…
Xylème et transport des ressources par transpiration
The xylem of vascular plants distributes water and dissolved minerals that are taken up by the roots to the rest of the plant. The cells that…
Régulation de la transpiration par les stomates
During photosynthesis, plants acquire the necessary carbon dioxide and release the produced oxygen back into the atmosphere. Openings in the…
Des adaptations qui réduisent la perte d'eau
Though evaporation from plant leaves drives transpiration, it also results in loss of water. Because water is critical for photosynthetic reactions…
Phloème et transport du sucre
Like many living organisms, plants have tissues that specialize in specific plant functions. For example, shoots are well adapted to rapid growth,…
L'écosystème du sol
Plants obtain inorganic minerals and water from the soil, which acts as a natural medium for land plants. The composition and quality of soil depend…
Éléments clés de la nutrition des plantes
Like all living organisms, plants require organic and inorganic nutrients to survive, reproduce, grow and maintain homeostasis. To identify nutrients…
Les rôles des bactéries et des champignons dans la nutrition des plantes
Plants have the impressive ability to create their own food through photosynthesis. However, plants often require assistance from organisms in the…
Épiphytes, parasites et carnivores
Plants often form mutualistic relationships with soil-dwelling fungi or bacteria to enhance their roots’ nutrient uptake ability.…
L'apoplasme et le symplasme
Plant growth depends on its ability to take up water and dissolved minerals from the soil. The root system of every plant is equipped with the…
Identification of Novel Regulators of Plant Transpiration by Large-Scale Thermal Imaging Screening in <em>Helianthus Annuus</em>
Plant adaptation to biotic and abiotic stresses is governed by a variety of factors, among which the regulation of stomatal aperture in response to…
Lateral Root Inducible System in <em>Arabidopsis</em> and Maize
Lateral root development contributes significantly to the root system, and hence is crucial for plant growth. The study of lateral root initiation is…
Using High Resolution Computed Tomography to Visualize the Three Dimensional Structure and Function of Plant Vasculature
High resolution x-ray computed tomography (HRCT) is a non-destructive diagnostic imaging technique with sub-micron resolution capability that is now…

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