Ionic radius is the measure used to describe the size of an ion. A cation always has fewer electrons and the same number of protons as the parent atom; it is smaller than the atom from which it is derived. For example, the covalent radius of an aluminum atom (1s22s22p63s23p1) is 118 pm, whereas the ionic radius of an Al3+ (1s22s22p6) is 68 pm. As electrons are removed from the outer valence shell, the remaining core electrons occupying smaller shells experience a greater effective nuclear charge Zeff and are drawn even closer to the nucleus.
Cations with larger charges are smaller than cations with smaller charges (e.g., V2+ has an ionic radius of 79 pm, while that of V3+ is 64 pm). Proceeding down the groups of the periodic table, cations of successive elements with the same charge generally have larger radii, corresponding to an increase in the principal quantum number, n.
An anion (negative ion) is formed by the addition of one or more electrons to the valence shell of an atom. This results in a greater repulsion among the electrons and a decrease in Zeff per electron. Both effects (the increased number of electrons and the decreased Zeff) cause the radius of an anion to be larger than that of the parent atom. For example, a sulfur atom ([Ne]3s23p4) has a covalent radius of 104 pm, whereas the ionic radius of the sulfide anion ([Ne]3s23p6) is 170 pm. For consecutive elements proceeding down any group, anions have larger principal quantum numbers and, thus, larger radii.
Atoms and ions that have the same electron configuration are said to be isoelectronic. Examples of isoelectronic species are N3–, O2–, F–, Ne, Na+, Mg2+, and Al3+ (1s22s22p6). Another isoelectronic series is P3–, S2–, Cl–, Ar, K+, Ca2+, and Sc3+ ([Ne]3s23p6). For atoms or ions that are isoelectronic, the number of protons determines the size. The greater the nuclear charge, the smaller the radius in a series of isoelectronic ions and atoms.
This text is adapted from OpenStax Chemistry 2e, Section 6.5: Periodic Variations in Element Properties.