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DNA Methylation Analysis

JoVE 5550

Methylation at CpG dinucleotides is a chemical modification of DNA hypothesized to play important roles in regulating gene expression. In particular, the methylation of clusters of methylation sites, called “CpG islands”, near promoters and other gene regulatory elements may contribute to the stable silencing of genes, for example, during epigenetic processes…


 Genetics

An Overview of Epigenetics

JoVE 5549

Since the early days of genetics research, scientists have noted certain heritable phenotypic differences that are not due to differences in the nucleotide sequence of DNA. Current evidence suggests that these “epigenetic” phenomena might be controlled by a number of mechanisms, including the modification of DNA cytosine bases with methyl groups, the addition…


 Genetics

RNA-Seq

JoVE 5548

Among different methods to evaluate gene expression, the high-throughput sequencing of RNA, or RNA-seq. is particularly attractive, as it can be performed and analyzed without relying on prior available genomic information. During RNA-seq, RNA isolated from samples of interest is used to generate a DNA library, which is then amplified and sequenced. Ultimately, RNA-seq can …


 Genetics

Expression Profiling with Microarrays

JoVE 5547

Microarrays are important tools for profiling gene expression, and are based on complementary binding between probes that are attached to glass chips and nucleic acids derived from samples. Using these arrays, scientists can simultaneously evaluate the expression of thousands of genes. In addition, the expression profiles of different cells or tissue types can be compared, …


 Genetics

An Overview of Gene Expression

JoVE 5546

Gene expression is the complex process where a cell uses its genetic information to make functional products. This process is regulated at multiple stages, and any misregulation could lead to diseases such as cancer.

This video highlights important historical discoveries relating to gene expression, including the…


 Genetics

Cytogenetics

JoVE 5545

Cytogenetics is the field of study devoted to chromosomes, and involves the direct observation of a cell’s chromosomal number and structure, together known as its karyotype. Many chromosomal abnormalities are associated with disease. Each chromosome in a karyotype can be stained with a variety of dyes to give unique banding patterns. More recent techniques, including …


 Genetics

SNP Genotyping

JoVE 5544

Single nucleotide polymorphisms, or SNPs, are the most common form of genetic variation in humans. These differences at individual bases in the DNA often do not directly affect gene expression, but in many cases can still be useful for locating disease-associated genes or for diagnosing patients. Numerous methodologies have been established to identify, or…


 Genetics

An Overview of Genetics and Disease

JoVE 5543

Many human diseases are associated with mutations or variations in genetic sequences. Some of these genetic variants are heritable, passed down from generation to generation, while others arise sporadically during an organism’s life and cause diseases such as cancer. Researchers are trying to identify and characterize these genetic alterations in the hopes of…


 Genetics

Genetic Screens

JoVE 5542

Genetic screens are critical tools for defining gene function and understanding gene interactions. Screens typically involve mutating genes and then assessing the affected organisms for phenotypes of interest. The process can be “forward”, where mutations are generated randomly to identify unknown genes responsible for the phenotypes, or it can be…


 Genetics

Genetic Crosses

JoVE 5541

To dissect genetic processes or create organisms with novel suites of traits, scientists can perform genetic crosses, or the purposeful mating of two organisms. The recombination of parental genetic material in the offspring allows researchers to deduce the functions, interactions, and locations of genes.


This video will examine how…


 Genetics

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