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fMRI: Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

JoVE 5212

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a non-invasive neuroimaging technique used to investigate human brain function and cognition in both healthy individuals and populations with abnormal brain states. Functional MRI utilizes a magnetic resonance signal to detect changes in blood flow that are coupled to neuronal activation when a specific task is performed.…


 Neuroscience

The Morris Water Maze

JoVE 5211

The Morris water maze is one of the most widely used behavioral tests for studying spatial learning and memory. In the initial phases of this task, rodents must swim to a platform to escape from a pool of water. The platform is then hidden under the water’s surface, so that the animal is required to remember it’s location in order to escape.This simple yet…


 Neuroscience

An Introduction to Behavioral Neuroscience

JoVE 5210

Behavioral neuroscience is the study of how the nervous system guides behavior, and how the various functional areas and networks within the brain correlate to specific behaviors and disease states. Researchers in this field utilize a wide variety of experimental methods ranging from complex animal training techniques to sophisticated imaging experiments in human subjects. …


 Neuroscience

Explant Culture of Neural Tissue

JoVE 5209

The intricate structure of the vertebrate nervous system arises from a complex series of events involving cell differentiation, cell migration, and changes in cell morphology. Studying these processes is essential to our understanding of nervous system function as well as our ability to diagnose and treat disorders that result from abnormal development. However, neural…


 Neuroscience

Murine In Utero Electroporation

JoVE 5208

In utero electroporation is an important technique for studying the molecular mechanisms that guide the proliferation, differentiation, migration, and maturation of cells during neural development. Electroporation enables the rapid and targeted delivery of material into cells by utilizing electrical pulses to create transient pores in cell membranes. Although…


 Neuroscience

An Introduction to Developmental Neurobiology

JoVE 5207

Developmental neuroscience is a field that explores how the nervous system is formed, from early embryonic stages through adulthood. Although it is known that neural progenitor cells follow predictable stages of proliferation, differentiation, migration, and maturation, the mechanisms controlling the progression through each stage are incompletely understood. Studying…


 Neuroscience

Histological Staining of Neural Tissue

JoVE 5206

In order to examine the cellular, structural and molecular layout of tissues and organs, researchers use a method known as histological staining. In this technique, a tissue of interest is preserved using chemical fixatives and sectioned, or cut into very thin slices. A variety of staining techniques are then applied to provide contrast to the visually uniform sections. In …


 Neuroscience

Rodent Stereotaxic Surgery

JoVE 5205

Stereotaxic (or stereotactic) surgery is a method used to manipulate the brain of living animals. This technique allows researchers to accurately target deep structures within the brain through the use of a stereotaxic atlas, which provides the 3D coordinates of each area with respect to anatomical landmarks on the skull. After the skull is exposed, anesthetized animals…


 Neuroscience

An Introduction to Neuroanatomy

JoVE 5204

Neuroanatomy is the study of nervous system structures and how they relate to function. One focus of neuroanatomists is the macroscopic structures within the central and peripheral nervous systems, like the cortical folds on the surface of the brain. However, scientists in this field are also interested in the microscopic relationships between neurons and glia - the two…


 Neuroscience

Calcium Imaging in Neurons

JoVE 5203

Calcium ions play an integral role in neuron function: They act as intracellular signals that can elicit responses such as altered gene expression and neurotransmitter release from synaptic vesicles. Within the cell, calcium concentration is highly dynamic due to the presence of pumps that selectively transport these ions in response to a variety of signals. Calcium…


 Neuroscience

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