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X-ray Fluorescence (XRF)

JoVE 5498

Source: Laboratory of Dr. Lydia Finney — Argonne National Laboratory


X-ray fluorescence is an induced, emitted radiation that can be used to generate spectroscopic information. X-ray fluorescence microscopy is a non-destructive imaging technique that uses the induced fluorescence emission of metals to identify and quantify their…

 Analytical Chemistry

Anxiety Testing

JoVE 5430

Anxiety is a commonly observed behavioral disorder that stems from fear. It is described as increased restlessness, or unpleasant feelings of fear over anticipated events. Experimenters often use rodent models to better understand anxiety disorders in humans. They use different paradigms, like exposing rodents to bright spaces or loud sounds, which are known to induce fear. These tests…

 Behavioral Science

Modeling Social Stress

JoVE 5429

Stress negatively affects our quality of life. In particular, some individuals experience social stress when placed in a social environment that they are unfamiliar with or have difficulty adjusting to. Since it is hard to examine mechanisms of social stress in humans, modeling this condition in animals may help scientist in developing new therapies for treating this commonly encountered…

 Behavioral Science

An Introduction to Modeling Behavioral Disorders and Stress

JoVE 5428

Recently, it has been discovered that behavioral conditions such as, depression, anxiety and stress-response have a neurological basis. Understanding the biological underpinnings of these conditions may help scientists in developing more effective therapies to treat these disorders. Typically, rodent models are used in this field and behavioral scientists create these models using…

 Behavioral Science

Self-administration Studies

JoVE 5427

Behavioral reinforcement induced by the rewarding feelings following substance use sometimes leads to addiction, which is demonstrated by increased self-administration. Drug self-administration studies in rodents model human behavior during drug abuse. These models are useful in understanding the neurobiological behavior of addiction in order to help scientists discover new treatments for…

 Behavioral Science

Positive Reinforcement Studies

JoVE 5426

Researchers study learning of a behavior through the use of operant conditioning. This type of learning involves associating the behavior with a consequence, which is a reward or punishment. If the consequence is a reward, it leads to reinforcement of the desired behavior. One type of reinforcement approach is positive reinforcement, where the behavior is rewarded with an artificial,…

 Behavioral Science

An Introduction to Reward and Addiction

JoVE 5425

Consequences play a major role in controlling our behavior. If the consequence is a reward, then it encourages the associated behavior. Rewards can come in many forms such as a pleasant feeling, money, or food. However, sometimes an individual engages in compulsive behavior despite of negative consequences, and this state is known as addiction. Administration of addictive substances is…

 Behavioral Science

Assessing Dexterity with Reaching Tasks

JoVE 5424

Reaching tasks are employed in behavioral neuroscience to investigate motor learning and forelimb dexterity. Much like human hands, rodents have dexterous forepaws, which are necessary for executing coordinated and precise motor movements. Experimenters may utilize food rewards to train rodents to reach and for testing their reaching abilities. These tasks help behavioral neuroscientist in…

 Behavioral Science

Balance and Coordination Testing

JoVE 5423

Balance and coordination are critical components involved in the control of movement. Many sensory receptors and neural processing units are required to help individuals maintain balance while performing various activities. Deficits in balance and coordination occur in patients suffering from movement disorders or due to aging. Therefore, scientists are trying to understand the…

 Behavioral Science

An Introduction to Motor Control

JoVE 5422

Motor control involves integration and processing of sensory information by our nervous system, followed by a response through our skeletal system to perform a voluntary or involuntary action. It is vital to understand how our neuroskeletal system controls motor behavior in order to evaluate injuries pertaining to general movement, reflexes, and coordination. An improved understanding of motor …

 Behavioral Science
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