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Multicopter Aerodynamics: Characterizing Thrust on a Hexacopter

JoVE 10469

Source: Prashin Sharma and Ella M. Atkins, Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI


Multicopters are becoming popular for a variety of hobby and commercial applications. They are commonly available as quadcopter (four thrusters), hexacopter (six thrusters), and octocopter (eight thrusters) …

 Aeronautical Engineering

Transformation of E. coli Cells Using an Adapted Calcium Chloride Procedure

JoVE 10515

Source: Natalia Martin1, Andrew J. Van Alst1, Rhiannon M. LeVeque1, and Victor J. DiRita1
1 Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Michigan State University


Bacteria have the ability to exchange genetic material (DeoxyriboNucleic Acid, DNA) in a process known as horizontal gene transfer. Incorporating exogenous DNA…

 Microbiology

Crystallization of Salicylic Acid via Chemical Modification

JoVE 10407

Source: Kerry M. Dooley and Michael G. Benton, Department of Chemical Engineering, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA


Processing of biochemicals involves unit operations such as crystallization, ultracentrifugation, membrane filtration, and preparative chromatography, all of which have in common the need to separate large from…

 Chemical Engineering

Central Venous Access Device Dressing Change

JoVE 10311

Source: Madeline Lassche, MSNEd, RN and Katie Baraki, MSN, RN, College of Nursing, University of Utah, UT


Central venous access devices (CVAD), commonly known as central lines or central catheters, are large-bore intravenous (IV) catheters that are introduced into the central circulation. Typically, CVADs terminate in the superior vena…

 Nursing Skills

RNA Structure

JoVE 10799

The basic structure of RNA consists of a five-carbon sugar and one of four nitrogenous bases. Although most RNA is single-stranded, it can form complex secondary and tertiary structures. Such structures play essential roles in the regulation of transcription and translation.

There are three main types of ribonucleic acid (RNA): messenger RNA (mRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA), and ribosomal RNA (rRNA). All three RNA types consist of a single-stranded chain of nucleotides. Each nucleotide is composed of the five-carbon sugar ribose. The carbon molecules of ribose are numbered one through five. Carbon number five carries a phosphate group and carbon number one a nitrogenous base. There are four nitrogenous bases in RNA—adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and uracil (U). Uracil is the only base in RNA that is not present in DNA, which uses thymine (T) instead. During transcription, RNA is synthesized from a DNA template based on complementary binding of the new RNA bases to the DNA bases; A binds to T, G binds to C, C binds to G, and U binds to A. Like DNA, adjacent nucleotides in RNA are linked together through phosphodiester bonds. These bonds form between the phosphate group of one nucleotide and a hydroxyl (–OH) group on the ribose of the adjacent nucleotide. This structure lends RNA its directionality—that is, the two ends

 Core: Biology
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