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Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A: A peptidyl-dipeptidase that catalyzes the release of a C-terminal dipeptide, -Xaa-*-Xbb-Xcc, when neither Xaa nor Xbb is Pro. It is a Cl(-)-dependent, zinc glycoprotein that is generally membrane-bound and active at neutral pH. It may also have endopeptidase activity on some substrates. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 3.4.15.1.

Hormonal Regulation

JoVE 10893

The renin-aldosterone system is an endocrine system which guides the renal absorption of water and electrolytes, thus managing blood pressure and osmoregulation. Activation of the system begins in the kidneys with a small cluster of cells adjacent to the afferent and efferent blood vessels of the renal corpuscle. As the nephrons are filtering blood, juxtaglomerular cells monitor blood pressure. If they detect a decrease in pressure, they release the hormone renin into the bloodstream. Circulating renin interacts with angiotensinogen, a precursor protein synthesized by the liver, to create angiotensin I. A final step cleaves angiotensin I into angiotensin II, a process achieved by angiotensin-converting enzyme, or ACE, which is released by the lungs. Angiotensin II temporarily increases blood pressure by contracting smaller blood vessels. It also induces the release of aldosterone from the adrenal cortex of the kidneys. Aldosterone directly stimulates the reabsorption of sodium and the excretion of potassium by the kidneys to maintain electrolyte balance. Moreover, circulating levels of aldosterone stimulate the release of antidiuretic hormone, or ADH, by the hypothalamus in the brain. Upon reaching the kidneys, ADH upregulates aquaporin channels in the nephrons which increase the water retention in the blood vessels. The combined effects of

 Core: Biology

Hemogenic Reprogramming of Human Fibroblasts by Enforced Expression of Transcription Factors

1Molecular Medicine and Gene Therapy, Lund Stem Cell Center, Lund University, 2Wallenberg Center for Molecular, Lund University, 3Center for Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Coimbra, 4Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology, 5Department of Cell, Developmental and Regenerative Biology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, 6Black Family Stem Cell Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai

JoVE 60112

 Developmental Biology

Production of Pseudotyped Particles to Study Highly Pathogenic Coronaviruses in a Biosafety Level 2 Setting

1Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, 2INRA, Virologie et Immunologie Moléculaires, 3Robert Frederick Smith School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Cornell University, 4Department of Microbiology, College of Agricultural and Life Sciences, Cornell University, 5Horae Gene Therapy Center, University of Massachusetts Medical School

JoVE 59010

 Immunology and Infection

A Small Animal Model of Ex Vivo Normothermic Liver Perfusion

1Collaboration for Organ Perfusion, Protection, Engineering and Regeneration (COPPER) Lab, Division of Transplant, Department of Surgery, Comprehensive Transplant Center, Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, 2Department of Surgery, Division of Transplant, Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, 3Department of Surgery, Division of CardioThoracic Surgery, Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, 4Department of Medicine, Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center

JoVE 57541

 Medicine

Isolation and Characterization of Primary Rat Valve Interstitial Cells: A New Model to Study Aortic Valve Calcification

1Developmental Biology, The Roslin Institute and R(D)SVS, University of Edinburgh, 2Guangzhou Institute of Cardiovascular Disease, The Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Guangzhou Medical University, 3Clinical Sciences and R(D)SVS, University of Edinburgh

JoVE 56126

 Developmental Biology

Drosophila Preparation and Longitudinal Imaging of Heart Function In Vivo Using Optical Coherence Microscopy (OCM)

1Bioengineering Program, Lehigh University, 2Center for Photonics and Nanoelectronics, Lehigh University, 3Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Lehigh University, 4State Key Laboratory of Software Engineering, Wuhan University, 5Genetics and Aging Research Unit, Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School

JoVE 55002

 Biology

Scanning Electron Microscopy of Macerated Tissue to Visualize the Extracellular Matrix

1Department of Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 2Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 3Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 4Cardiovascular Institute, Maine Medical Center

JoVE 54005

 Biology
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